Language competence has become an important tool of business success. The review of the research data concerning the correlation between foreign language competence and the economic activity of European companies is given. The role and function of a foreign language in the company performance are considered. The conclusion about reasonable changes in the English language curriculum within the Presidential programme for managerial staff is made.
A woman’s career begins with the choice of a professional path and advances with life-long learning, but her success can be impeded by gender asymmetry. Despite changes in working conditions, legal norms, and social policy, the gender gap is consistently reproduced, leading to “stalled progress.” Our analysis of literature showed that the search for subtle, yet resilient mechanisms responsible for the reproduction of gender inequality in Russian companies will be most efficient if it is based on the following theoretical concepts: 1) the “gendered organisations” approach, which differs distinctly from other methods and allows researchers to analyse gender inequality on both the structural and the regulatory level; 2) on the concepts of career capital and social capital, which enable us to synthesize individual and structural levels of analysis; 3) on the model of “a creative organization” and upon investigating the consequences of gender inequality for the development of both an individual working woman and the organisation as a whole. In Russia, studies of gender inequality that apply current approaches are seldom carried out; many researchers rely on the “gender role approach”, which is considered outdated by the global scientific community.
The theoretical analysis also allowed the authors to formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing: 1 — a working woman includes gender in the attributes that are important for career advancement; and 2 — an organisation is perceived as less creative if its employees observe the signs of gender inequality in its structure and operations. It is suggested that a social psychological model of career success factors for a working woman should include, on the one hand, the organisational context (informal structure, norms and regulations, etc.), and on the other — individual social strategies (including strategies that use career capital to eliminate gender inequality). It is concluded that key mechanisms for gender inequality reproduction are the mechanisms associated with social capital and its development, which have not been sufficiently investigated.
The paper presents the results of a comprehensive psychological study of the professional network community of the Institute for the development of leaders as a strategic initiative, “Agency for strategic initiatives to promote new projects” (ASI). Based on its results, the authors attempt to formalize and justify the psychological determinants of personality, the purposeful impact and education of the younger generation, nudge and the correction of “mature” entrepreneurs will directly affect their personal growth, correspond to their individual development path, activate the activity “under the flag” of the National technology initiative (NTI) and the strategy of national technological development (NTD). The article presents the results of the study of individual psychological indicators of the professional community representatives of the Institute for Leadership Development ASI. Only representatives of the russian technological elite can be the main drivers of socio-economic growth of the national economy in the next 5–10–20 years. The Government of the Russian Federation has relied on the development of science and technology in its development Strategy.
The chapter looks at universities in their relation to other entities in society. It proposes new metrics for gaining insight into these relationships. The possibilities for the reorganisation of the relationships between universities, industry and government so as to stimulate economic growth or innovation can themselves be classed as innovations. Whilst universities often are the locus of specific innovations, their broader discursive role provides a means of exploring contesting perspectives on innovation. In doing so, they can contribute to a broader public discourse where some innovations which were once seen to be controversial become normalised. The discourse dynamics illustrated by the Triple Helix allows for the description of this process as one where redundancies of expectation are produced not only within the transactional productions of the academy (i.e. academic papers) but also within the management of institutions surrounding education, including university management, academic quality agencies, institutional ranking organisations, academic journals, as well as other institutions which the university is associated with such as health or law.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.