Факторы фрагментации партийных систем российских регионов (2003–2013)
Up to the 2002 electoral reform the performance of political parties in Russia's regional legislative elections was poor. According to the federal law introduced this reform, all Russian regions since December 2003 have been obliged to elect no less than a half of the members of their assemblies by proportional representation. As a result, party competition at the regional level became unavoidable. These circumstances gave a good opportunity to study factors of party fragmentation in the entities of the Russian Federation. The study tested three kinds of hypotheses dealing with institutional, sociological and political effects. Analysis based on general sample of elections held in Russian regions since 2003 to 2013 shows that only political effects were robust through the time of observation. Party system fragmentation in Russian entities was systematically deprived by influential regional executive incumbents, federal authorities as well as was connected to the type of regional political regime.
A political scientist examines how regional elites shape the electoral fortunes of Russia’s hegemonic party, United Russia (UR). Using original data on regional legislative elections from 2003 to 2011, we show that UR performs better in those regions where regional governors control strong political machines. Russia’s leadership undercut its own electoral strategy by replacing popular elected governors with colorless bureaucrats who struggled to mobilize votes on behalf of United Russia. This is one of the reasons for United Russia’s poor performance in recent elections.
After the 2002-2003 electoral reform the vast majority of Russian regions had to elaborate new regional electoral regulations from scratch. There was a stark contrast among them in such a dimension of the electoral systems as electoral threshold. The present essay analyses the causes of this cross-regional variations over the period from 2003 to 2013. It is shown that there were three main causes of these variations: structural characteristics of the regional political and societal systems, the influence of the Federal Center and the regional political regimes.
This article discusses the following insufficiently explored question: what are the immediate and long-term effects of the regional electoral reform of 2003 on regional majoritarian electoral systems and the composition of the plural components of regional legislatures? The article analyzes the transformations related to the number of deputies elected in districts with majoritarian systems before and after the reform and changes in their election process (in the first place, modifications of the systems in the districts). It demonstrates how electoral systems have influenced factors contributing to the success of candidates in elections and the campaign strategies of the candidates in single-mandate districts; it shows those politicians who reached favorable outcomes in elections, and those who ended up left out of regional politics. The article discusses the increased role of federal parties in the regions, and how this contributed to the increasing dependence of regional politicians on the federal government.
The article deals with the processes of building the information society and security in the CIS in accordance with modern conditions. The main objective is to review existing mechanisms for the formation of a common information space in the Eurasian region, regarded as one of the essential aspects of international integration. The theoretical significance of the work is to determine the main controls of the regional information infrastructure, improved by the development of communication features in a rapid process.The practical component consists in determining the future policies of the region under consideration in building the information society. The study authors used historical-descriptive approach and factual analysis of events having to do with drawing the contours of today's global information society in the regional refraction.
The main result is the fact that the development of information and communication technologies, and network resources leads to increased threats of destabilization of the socio-political situation in view of the emergence of multiple centers that generate the ideological and psychological background. Keeping focused information policy can not be conceived without the collective participation of States in the first place, members of the group leaders of integration - Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. Currently, only produced a comprehensive approach to security in the information field in the Eurasian region, but the events in the world, largely thanks to modern technology, make the search for an exit strategy with a much higher speed. The article contributes to the science of international relations, engaging in interdisciplinary thinking that is associated with a transition period in the development of society. A study of current conditions in their relation to the current socio-political patterns of the authors leads to conclusions about the need for cooperation with the network centers of power in the modern information environment, the formation of alternative models of networking, especially in innovation and scientific and technical areas of information policy, and expanding the integration of the field in this region on the information content.
This special publication for the 2012 New Delhi Summit is a collection of articles by government officials from BRICS countries, representatives of international organizations, businessmen and leading researchers.
The list of Russian contributors includes Sergei Lavrov, Foreign Minister of Russia, Maxim Medvedkov, Director of the Trade Negotiations Department of the Russian Ministry of Economic Development, Vladimir Dmitriev, Vnesheconombank Chairman, Alexander Bedritsky, advisor to the Russian President, VadimLukov, Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Foreign Affairs Ministry, and representatives of the academic community.
The publication also features articles by the President of Kazakhstan NursultanNazarbayev and internationally respected economist Jim O’Neil, who coined the term “BRIC”. In his article Jim O’Neil speculates about the future of the BRICS countries and the institution as a whole.
The publication addresses important issues of the global agenda, the priorities of BRICS and the Indian Presidency, the policies and competitive advantages of the participants, as well as BRICS institutionalization, enhancing efficiency and accountability of the forum.