Как из наблюдаемых корреляций оценить причинно-следственные связи? Сравнение подходов, используемых в экономике и компьютерных науках.
In the monograph based on the analysis of literature, current criminal procedural legislation and practice of its application are considered problematic, controversial issues related to the preparation and conduct of the identification parade of the living persons on the grounds of appearance and functional dynamic set of skills. Proposed a set of recommendations for further improvement of the legal and criminological foundations of this investigation. Considerable attention is paid to the peculiarities of the procedure, evaluating its results based on summarizing the most common errors made upon presentation of persons for identification. The monograph is designed for law enforcement personnel involved in the disclosure and investigation of crime, prosecutors, judges, lawyers, teachers, researchers, students, cadets and students of law schools, and addressed to a wide circle of readers interested in the performance of investigative actions and problems of proof in Russian criminal procedure.
The paper deals with the algorithm of the identification of discrete systems with variable delay, consisting of an ideal sampler, zero-order hold and the linear continuous part. The delay parameter (fractional part of time delay) is estimated through the inverse modified Z-transform. The estimation is based on the equality of the continuous-time part step response to zero at the time delay point. The time delay of the discrete system (integer component) is adjusted by means of the integer part of the estimate obtained.
This manuscript explores alternatives to the currently dominant model of political identification with a nation (nation-state), namely versions of civilizational, cosmopolitan and identification. In the course of the research author concludes that transnational identification can not become a solution to the problem of “identity crisis” for large political communities. However, the theoretical investigation of this form of identification may be relevant to the life strategies of single individuals who face existence under the dominant political order of the nation-state, despite the fact that their practices in a global world has already gone beyond national borders.
The monograph may be of interest to students in the field of political theory, international relations and philosophy, as well as a wide range of readers ingaged in a problem of the construction of political identities in the era of globalization.
Utilising sources that range from 16th century parish registers to the 21st century supermarket loyalty card, this collection examines the history and development of identification documents and surveillance techniques over the past 500 years. Combining the knowledge of several experts from a variety of disciplines, this volume successfully demonstrates how identification and registration can enable and empower a population, particularly if the interests of the state and population coincide. It also reveals the weakness of states or corporations when dealing with issues such as popular resistance and fraud, despite great leaps forward in the scientific methods of identifying individuals. This important book offers a vital contribution to the literature on a variety of topical subject areas such as biometric identification, immigration control and personal data use, as such it is of interest to students and scholars of civil and human rights amongst other disciplines.