Московский собеседник Артура Шопенгауэра.
The article is the first publication and interpretation of the fragment from the diary of the Moscow pastor Sederholm with the description of his visiting Arthur Schopenhauer in 1858.
Ninetieth century was the period of forming of main aspects of Russian mentality and reflection about possible Russian destiny. One special person lived in this period, he reflected on historical mission and destiny of Russia. He began from Slavyanofil’s ideas and overcame them; he carried through a long way and finally came to realization of the oncoming end of the world history and eschatological crisis. Truly he was a special person for his time, “lonely thinker”, Unacknowledged by contemporaries, lonely dreamer and poet, who dedicated his life to the only dream about great future of his country.
The two outstanding Russian thinkers of the 20th century, Fedor Avgustovich Stepun (Friedrich Steppuhn) and Boris Petrovich Vysheslavtsev, shared not only many of their philosophic ideas, but the vicissitudes of fate as well. Both completed their studies of philosophy in Germany, both emerged as important figures in the Russian pre-revolutionary thought and both were expelled from the country on board the ill-famous "philosophers' steamboat" in 1922. Once abroad, their lives took different courses, but they never lost view one of another. Either one in a different manner, they both pointed out that 20th century is the time of the triumph of irrationalism which totally overwhelmed and suppressed what had been remaining of the rationalist and positivist 19th century. According to them, it was the irrationalism which became the major cause of all the tragedies they witnessed. The author also publishes Stepun's letters to Vysheslavtsev illustrating their intellectual affinity and mutual interest. In Appendix the reader will find published an hitherto little known text by Stepun on bolshevism.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.