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## Local Observables and Renormalization in Dirac–Segal Approach to QFT

We explain the Dirac–Segal approach to quantum field theory. We study local observables in this approach and the theory of deformations. We found out that this theory of deformation in the second-order coincides with the renormalization of the same theory, would it be considered in Polyakov approach. We conjecture that it is still true to all orders.

We study U(1) twist fields in a two-dimensional lattice theory of massive Dirac fermions. Factorized formulas for finite-lattice form factors of these fields are derived using elliptic parametrization of the spectral curve of the model, elliptic determinant identities and theta functional interpolation. We also investigate the thermodynamic and infinite-volume scaling limit, where the corresponding expressions reduce to form factors of the exponential fields of the sine-Gordon model at the free-fermion point.

The workshop *Tropical Aspects in Geometry, Topology and Physics* was devoted to a wide discussion and exchange of ideas between the leading experts representing various points of view on the subject. The development of tropical geometry is based on deep links between problems in real and complex enumerative geometry, symplectic geometry, quantum fields theory, mirror symmetry, dynamical systems and other research areas. On the other hand, new interesting phenomena discovered in the framework of tropical geometry (like refined tropical enumerative invariants) pose the problem of a conceptual understanding of these phenomena in the “classical” geometry and mathematical physics.

Despite its long history and stunning experimental successes, the mathematical foundation of perturbative quantum field theory is still a subject of ongoing research.

This book aims at presenting some of the most recent advances in the field, and at reflecting the diversity of approaches and tools invented and currently employed.

Both leading experts and comparative newcomers to the field present their latest findings, helping readers to gain a better understanding of not only quantum but also classical field theories. Though the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and physicists alike, the focus is more on mathematical developments.

This volume consists of four parts: The first Part covers local aspects of perturbative quantum field theory, with an emphasis on the axiomatization of the algebra behind the operator product expansion. The second Part highlights Chern-Simons gauge theories, while the third examines (semi-)classical field theories. In closing, Part 4 addresses factorization homology and factorization algebras.

Topic modeling is a widely used approach for clustering text documents, however, it possesses a set of parameters that must be determined by a user, for example, the number of topics. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for fast approximation of the optimal topic number that corresponds well to human judgment. Our method combines renormalization theory and Renyi entropy approach. The main advantage of this method is computational speed which is crucial when dealing with big data. We apply our method to Latent Dirichlet Allocation model with Gibbs sampling procedure and test our approach on two datasets in different languages. Numerical results and comparison of computational speed demonstrate significant gain in time with respect to standard grid search methods.

We calculate one--loop corrections to the vertexes and propagators of photons and charged particles in the strong electric field backgrounds. We use the Schwinger--Keldysh diagrammatic technique. We observe that photon's Keldysh propagator receives growing with time infrared contribution. As the result, loop corrections are not suppressed in comparison with tree--level contribution. This effect substantially changes the standard picture of the pair production. To sum up leading IR corrections from all loops we consider the infrared limit of the Dyson--Schwinger equations and reduce them to a single kinetic equation.

We present a possible approach to the study of the renormalization group (RG) flow based entirely on the information theory. The average information loss under a single step of Wilsonian RG transformation is evaluated as a conditional entropy of the fast variables, which are integrated out, when the slow ones are held fixed. Its positivity results in the monotonic decrease of the informational entropy under renormalization. This, however, does not necessarily imply the irreversibility of the RG flow, because entropy is an extensive quantity and explicitly depends on the total number of degrees of freedom, which is reduced. Only some size-independent additive part of the entropy could possibly provide the required Lyapunov function. We also introduce a mutual information of fast and slow variables as probably a more adequate quantity to represent the changes in the system under renormalization and evaluate it for some simple systems. It is shown that for certain real space decimation transformations the positivity of the mutual information directly leads to the monotonic growth of the entropy per lattice site along the RG flow and hence to its irreversibility.

In this paper we introduce a notion of Feynman geometry on which quantum field theories could be properly defined. A strong Feynman geometry is a geometry when the vector space of A-infinity structures is nite dimensional. A weak Feynman geometry is a geometry when the vector space of A-infinity structures is innite dimensional while the relevant operators are of trace-class. We construct families of Feynman geometries with "continuum" as their limit.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.