Bibliographic Citation in Information Service
This paper gives the history of the origin of citations in scientific literature and reveals the causes of the origin of different referencing styles. Modern methods for working with references in scientific technical literature are described. The role of network technologies in preparing scientific publications is pointed out.
The article discusses one argument in favor of descriptive theory of reference of proper names against the theory of direct reference which appeals to a famous example of the ship of Theseus. The author defends the latter theory by means of distinguishing the object of direct reference and its principles of individuation. The argument is discussed with reference to the works of H. Chandler, L. Linsky, S. Kripke, N. Salmon and other theorists.
In the article the concept of the electronic document to the Russian legislation, describing the legal status of an electronic document that specifies the location of the electronic document in proof system of criminal and civil procedure, the range of problems in terms of raising the evidentiary value of electronic documents and on the basis of existing international agreements and practical experience in the U.S. this area, offers ways of improving legislation to overcome this legal conflict.
The article is focused on the subjec-matter of activity mediation of interpersonal relationships. In contrast with functional-role and personal-emotional ones it is determined by orientation of people's activity towards "universal "I" and by logic of the "object". Levels-layers of intragroup relationships determined by the goal of collaborative activity, personal-business relationships, private emotional-personal relationships are described. The reasons for qualitative difference between activity-mediated relationships in a collectivity and activity-mediated relationships in a corporation as well as the potential of activity-mediated relationships to "warm up" private emotional relationships in a group are analyzed. Phenomena and peculiarities in life of a group revealed by the author of activity mediation theory are related to categories of transactional analysis and the other systems of counseling psychology. That gives the way to the special - personological - approach to the further research.
Legal Translation In The Law Terminology Coreference Perspective
The article revisits a sustainable phenomenon inherent in languages for special purposes (domain-specific sublanguages) – multiple nomination of concepts exemplified by the legalese and correlating with cognitive representations of domain-specific knowledge. This phenomenon profiles an obvious problem area in special translation theory. Synonymy is treated in line with Yu.D. Aprecian’s concept whereby lexical units are regarded as semantically related if and when they appear referentially identical, i.e. co-referential. Co-reference gives rise to complexities in perceiving and comprehending legal texts in English–Russian translation. An interdisciplinary paradigm is applied for singling out an earmarked direction within the modern Translation Studies – Domain-Specific Translatology. A new name to once customary ‘special translation theory’ draws translation researchers to focus on profound studying of professional translation/interpreting across domain-specific fields, i.e. expert communication area, with the view of analyzing problems aggravated by the terminological co-reference available both in the source-language and target-language as well.
The paper revisits the topic elaborated in the earlier Translation Studies serial issue and suggests a diachronic approach towards reference in the interlanguage translation from within the psycholinguistics and cognitive linguistics perspectives. Reference viewed as the universal steering mechanism behind the translation process per se is believed to enable the translator's mental operations. This fact was implicitly evidenced in the respective notes by antique texts' translators who extensively reflected on their rendering of those texts into modern languages, including Russian. Source-text analysis against target language texts favored the translators' viewpoint on intricate and referentially opaque text-reality relations whereby such reality overlaps irreality comprising coexisting human beings with imaginary characters, mythical heroes, as well as real-life and fabled objects and events reflected in the source-language texts generated in high antiquity.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
Existing approaches suggest that IT strategy should be a reflection of business strategy. However, actually organisations do not often follow business strategy even if it is formally declared. In these conditions, IT strategy can be viewed not as a plan, but as an organisational shared view on the role of information systems. This approach generally reflects only a top-down perspective of IT strategy. So, it can be supplemented by a strategic behaviour pattern (i.e., more or less standard response to a changes that is formed as result of previous experience) to implement bottom-up approach. Two components that can help to establish effective reaction regarding new initiatives in IT are proposed here: model of IT-related decision making, and efficiency measurement metric to estimate maturity of business processes and appropriate IT. Usage of proposed tools is demonstrated in practical cases.
I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables