Informality and Mobility: Evidence from Russian Panel Data
Informality is a defining characteristic of labour markets in developing and transition countries. This paper analyzes patterns of mobility across different forms of formal and informal employment in Russia. Using the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey household panel we estimate a dynamic multinomial logit model with individual heterogeneity and correct for the initial conditions problem. Simulations show that structural state dependence is weak and that transition rates from informal to formal employment are not lower than from non-employment. These results lend support to the integrated view of the labour market.
In this paper, we compare age-earnings profiles between generations. Our empirical estimates are based on the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE (RLMS-HSE) data, 1994–2015. Using the long time-series panel, we overcome age-period-cohort problem inherent in the linear cross-sectional models. The main result in this paper is comparison of monthly income of different cohorts of individuals (in constant prices), controlling for a wide set of explanatory variables.
Multicollinearity prevents to indentify marginal effects of cohort, age, and period regressors including them all together in Mincerian type earnings function. This is well-known age-period-cohort (APC) problem. Intrinsic estimator helps us to compare age-earnings profiles of several generations in Russia, 1994–2016. Comparison presented in this paper revealed that some male generations’ income is less than that of the young cohorts and the opposite effect for some generations of women.
Analysis of factors, characterizing globalization, on transformation of higher education system, called as the «fundamental shift» by Kwiek (2001), is conducted with the use of data for 195 countries for the period 1988–2016. Models of dynamics of share of youth, getting higher education, before and after positive demand shock in higher education are considered. Globalization of markets and technologies development intensify competition stimulating growth of demand on highly-qualified workforce and increase of selectivity of universities in order to provide high quality higher education.
Russia offers a unique example of a centrally planned economy swiftly transforming itself into a market-oriented economy. We offer a comprehensive study of inequality and mobility patterns for Russia, using multiple rounds of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Surveys over the past two decades spanning this transition. We find rising income levels and decreasing inequality, with the latter being mostly caused by pro-poor growth rather than redistribution. The poorest tercile experienced a growth rate that was more than 10 times that of the richest tercile, leading to less long-term inequality than short-term inequality. We also find that switching from a part-time job to a full-time job, from a lower-skill job to a higher-skill job or staying in the formal sector is statistically significantly associated with reduced downward mobility and income growth. However, a transition from the private sector to the public sector is negatively associated with income growth.
The paper contributes to empirical evidence of tourism-led growth (TLG) hypothesis. The research is based on a balanced panel data for 116 countries from the World Bank, 1995–2017. International tourism receipts, its share in GDP, and annual number of international tourist arrivals per capita are used as indicators of countries’ specialization on tourism. Granger (non) causality test as long as autoregressive distributed lags models with heterogeneous parameters and control for cross-sectional dependence are in line with the TLG-hypothesis.