Social cost of substance abuse in Russia
Social cost of substance abuse was evaluated for Russia
Rebuking the common views of the Soviet Union as an ideal model of a drug-free society, this paper seeks to provide a fresh, challenging and stimulating account on drug abuse, drug treatment and drug policy in the Soviet Union. Shattering the common notion that 'there were no drugs in the Soviet Union', the paper improves our understanding of Russia's socialist past and also argues for the discarding of obsolete concepts that still tend to greatly influence contemporary Russian drug policy.
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
The author of the article: - highlights the main aspects of struggle against drugs; - gives the general characteristics of drug abuse treatment of the population of the regions of the Russian Federation; - describes the system of the indicators of development of the service of drug abuse help; - disclosures methodological approach to the synthesis of integral indicators of the drug abuse treatment network in the regions of the Russian Federation.
Abstract Most studies have shown that when men have higher levels of education they are less likely to beat their wives. Some have also shown that consumption of alcohol tends to be a negative catalyst in provoking inebriated males to commit domestic violence against their intimate partners. Thus, understanding the likely causes and/or associated factors of intimate partner violence with ever more concentrated studies is imperative. Studies in the past have not examined four possible categories of husbands to determine a correlation to intimate partner violence: those that are educated and tend to be alcoholics, those that are educated and tend not to drink alcohol, less-educated individuals who tend to be alcoholics, or those that are less educated and tend to not to be alcoholics. Employing the Demographic and Health Survey data for Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, this study has shown the likelihood of each category of husband to perpetrate domestic violence on intimate female parnters in Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan using the multivariate logistic regression at a 95% confidence interval. From the research it has been found that a husband’s educational level in and of itself offers no significant correlation to IPV perpetration in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, whereas in Nigeria, educated men were a little more likely to perpetrate IPV compared to men with less education as seen in the following: AOR 1.14, CI 1.02- 1.27; p-value < 0.001. In all, alcoholic men were at least 3 times more likely to commit IPV than nonalcoholic men as suggested in the formula of: CI 3.08-5.56; p-value < 0.001. In Nigeria, men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas and were non-alcoholics were less likely to perpetrate IPV compared to their counterparts in urban areas as suggested by AOR 0.75, CI 0.61-0.93; p-value < 0.01, while alcoholic men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas, showed the strongest proclivity to beat their wives as suggested in AOR 4.37, CI 3.5-5.42; p-value < 0.001. Alcohol seems to outweight the effects of education as an instigator of domestic violence. Its introduction consistently increases the likelihood of IPV and strengthens its statistical significance across sites.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence; husband; education; alcohol; Nigeria; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in second place in the structure of morbidity and first place in the structure of disability and mortality in the Russian Federation (RF). In turn, the leading place in the structure of cardiovascular mortality takes coronary heart disease (CHD). The high level of morbidity, disability and mortality from CVD is a direct threat to human health and leads to considerable economic loss. The costs of health care in Russia is much lower than similar indicators in most developed countries. Significant economic damage from CVD in the limited health financing determines the relevance of the search for effective and cost-effective treatment strategies, is fundamental in this performance criterion. Chapter carried out critical and constructive analysis of receiving guests method of assessing the effectiveness and showing his shortcomings and wrong position.
Domestic medicine is guided by the industry standard "Clinical and economic studies. General Provisions ", approved by Order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation №163 dated May 27, 2002, including for assessing the effectiveness of cardiorehabilitation patients after coronary bypass surgery. Application of this standard in practice shows inefficiency cardiorehabilitation. The chapter shows that the standard is not true costs and benefits carries on cardiorehabilitation. To correct this fundamental mistake proves that cardiorehabilitation coronary heart disease patients after coronary artery bypass grafting is an effective clinical and socio-economic point of view intervention.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.