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## Existence of Finite Total Equivalence Systems for Certain Closed Classes of 3-Valued Logic Functions

The article deals with finding finite total equivalence systems for formulas based on an arbitrary closed class of functions of several variables defined on the set \{0, 1, 2\} and taking values in the set \{0,1\} with the property that the restrictions of its functions to the set \{0, 1\} constitutes a closed class of Boolean functions. We consider all classes whose restriction closure is either the set of all functions of two-valued logic or the set T a of functions preserving a,a\in\{0,1\} . In each of these cases, we find a finite total equivalence system, construct a canonical type for formulas, and present a complete algorithm for determining whether any two formulas are equivalent.

Closed classes are considered of three-valued logic functions generated by symmetric functions taking values in the set {0, 1}. Criteria for existence of bases and for existence of finite generating systems are obtained for some classes generated by elementary periodic symmetric functions.

Closed classes of functions of many-valued logic are studied. Problem on the basis existence is considered for some families of closed sets. Functions from generating systems are symmetric functions taking the values from the set {0,1} and equal to zero on the unit collection and collections containing at least one zero. Furthermore, closure of any subset of considered set of fuction intersected with initial function set equals to the unit of every function closure of the subset intersected with initial function set.

Closed classes of three-valued logic functions whose generating systems consist of symmetric functions taking values in the set {0, 1} and taking value 1 on bounded number of layers from {1, 2}^n are consideder. Criteria of existence of a basis and existence of finite basis are obtained for these classes. There shown how existence of a basis and existence of finite basis depend on existence of a basis and existence of finite basis in subclasses, generated by monotonous and non-monotonous functions individually.

Closed classes of functions of three-valued logic whose generating systems include nonmonotone symmetric functions taking values in the set {0,1} and taking value 1 on restricted number of layers are studied. Cryteria of existence of basis and existence of finite basis has been obtained.

Closed classes of multi-valued logic are observed. Families of closed classes generated by function with special properties are considered. Criteria for basis existence have been obtained for these classes.

The Jain *saptabhaṅgī *is well-known for its general stance of non-one-sidedness. After a number of debates about the occurrence of contradictory sentences inside the so-called "Jain logic", three main theses are presented in the following: the *saptabhaṅgī *is a theory of judgment giving an exhaustive list of possible statements; it is not a "logic" in the modern sense of the word, given that no consequence relation appears in it; the Jain *saptabhaṅgī *can be viewed as a dual of the Madhyamaka *catuṣkoṭi*, where four possible statements are equally denied. A formal semantics is proposed to account for these theses, namely: a Question-Answer Semantics, in which a basic question-answer game makes sense of every statement with the help of structured logical values. Some new light will be also thrown upon the controversial notion of *avaktavyam*: instead of being taken as a case of true contradiction, our semantics will justify a reduction of the Jain theory of non-one-sidedness to a one-valued system of question-answer games.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.