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## Goodness-of-Fit Tests for the Power Function Distribution Based on the Puri-Rubin Characterization and Their Efficiencies

We construct and study new goodness-of-fit tests for the power distribution based on the Puri-Rubin characterization and using U-empirical distribution functions. We describe their limiting distributions and large deviations. Next we find their local Bahadur efficiency for common alternatives and study the conditions of local optimality.

We use the characterization of distribution symmetry in terms of order statistics in order to obtain new tests of symmetry based on U-empirical distribution functions. We calculate their limiting distributions and large deviations and explore their local Bahadur efficiency against location alternatives which turns out to be rather high.

A characterization of a certain class of exponential experiments, so-called E-experiments, is given. This allows us to give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of experiments to converge to an E-experiment. The obtained results are valid for Gaussian shift experiments. Some asymptotic approximations using E-experiments are studied.

We consider the transformation of the weighted statistics using its components. These statistics allow you to change in the test the sensivity of amplitudes and frequences of derivations from the hypothetical distributions. The collection of Karhunen-Loeve expansions is considered.We discuss also the statistics based on the components. Two new forms of the statistics are considered.

Symmetric random walks in $R^d$ and $Z^d$ are considered. It is assumed that the jump distribution density has moderate tails, i.e., several density moments are finite, including the second one. The global (for all $x$ and $t$) asymptotic behavior at infinity of the transition probability (fundamental solution of the corresponding parabolic convolution operator) is found. Front propagation of ecological waves in the corresponding population dynamics models is described.

Consideration was given to the omega square Cramer–von Mises tests intended to verify the goodness hypothesis about the distribution of the observed multivariable random vector with the distribution in the unit cube. The limit distribution of the statistics of these tests was defined by the distribution of an infinite quadratic form in the normal random variables. For convenience of computing its distribution, the residue of the quadratic form was approximated by a finite linear combination of the χ2-distributed random variables. Formulas for determination of the residue parameters were established.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.