The Role of Social Status In Poor Relief In a Modernizing Urban Society: The Case Of Sheremetev's Almshouse in 1802–1812
Sheremetev’s Almshouse was the first private institution of social welfare in Russia which openly proclaimed that not all the poor deserved relief and exposed the applicants to inspections by the administrators. The study demonstrates that the recipients of the Almshouse relief did not belong to the lowest tiers of Moscow population but originated from its middle stratum. They were clerks and ranked officials, the military of middle ranks, and priests, or their families. Considerable number of them had additional sources of income before they obtained allowances from the Almshouse, only for a few of them the relief was crucial for survival. This paradox can be explained by examining the reports on the recipients written by an administrator of the Almshouse. The document reveals that the Almshouse supported those Moscow dwellers who were involved in the network of patronage or were connected by the relations of military or civil service with the administration of the Almshouse and with Moscow aristocracy. The support from the patrons served a better guarantee for the Almshouse’s administration than the evidences of the neighbours or relatives. On the basis of the unearthed archival documents, the study brings out that the Almshouse was an institution deeply rooted in the Moscow patronage and protective network which connected people of middle stratum and the aristocracy. Selecting recipients of relief, the administration of the Almshouse was guided by the logic of privilege and assertion of status opposed to economic definitions of poverty.
Everything connected with the issue of economic and social inequality is very urgent and rather debating in many countries. It has reached its bolding point. Why?
The author summarizes all the data on the institute of pol’udie in Old Rus’ from the late 9th to the early 16th century and concludes that this institution had transformed. At first, in “tribal” society pol’udie was gifts and food which population gave voluntarily to their leaders/rulers when they went round over a territory of a given “tribe”. Then, under the Rus’ rule, the gifts and food were combined with an obligatory tribute which was collected during the circle-trips, and these trips were called pol’udie (10-11th centuries). Beginning at the early 12th century the pol’udie evolved into one tax collected in naturalia or money in favor of a prince or his agents or his beneficiaries.
This book represents the 8th volume of results obtained from the monitoring of the status of civil society in Russia that is conducted by the Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”) in conjunction with the leading sociological centres of Russia. The empirical base of this publication is formed from the data of All-Russian survey of population aged 18 years and older, that was based on representative sample and carried out in 83 regions of Russia in 2259 localities within the framework of expert services on the strategy of socio-economic development of Russia till 2020. The data provided characterizes engagement of Russians in volunteering, charitable donations and other social and political practices. The data describes determinants of Russians connected with responsibility for actions taken in their neighborhoods and localities and the country at large and their sense of the opportunity to exert their influence over it. This book will be of use to social and political scientists, economists, teachers and students of the social sciences and anyone, interested in the development of civil society in Russia.
This book presents the results of public opinion surveys on participation in charitable activity in Russia. This includes volunteerism and donations, as well as surveys on attitudes towards issues related to interaction between the State and charity providers. These surveys were conducted by the Center for Civil Society Studies and the Non-profit Sector (State University — Higher School of Economics) within the framework of monitoring the status of civil society in Russia.The data provided characterizes the environment for the development of charitable activity in Russia, the level of the Russian people’s participation in volunteer work and charitable donations, assessments of the interaction between the State and charitable organizations, and between Russian and foreign charitable organizations. This book will be of use to social and political scientists, economists, teachers and students of the social sciences, experts, and anyone interested in the status of charitable activity and civil society development in the Russian Federation.
The article concerns the problem of the Russian absolutist monarchy of the XVIII - the beginning of XX-th centuries in a comparative perspective. The social function of absolutism consisted in national integration, cultural unification and social transformation of traditional society by using of legal and coercive measures. The crucial problem is the changing role of the bureaucracy which could be the main protagonist of reforms or, just the opposite – its main opponent. From this point of view the author summarizes positive and negative aspects of absolutist reforms making outlook on the comparative experience of other absolutist empires of Europe and Asia.
It is known that charity, as with any social institution that depends on both external and internal factors. In this article the author analyzes the relationship of charity and the level of development of such internal factors as trust. The analysis was conducted on a global level and at regional level in Russia. The resulting lack of relationship to regional level and its presence in the world say that in Russia at the moment there is no required number of relevant data, based on which one could draw a conclusion about the level of philanthropy.
Overview of philanthropy for internationally focused audiences.
The following reasons of beggary in Russian State at the turn of the ХIХ-ХХth centuries are shown: they are the external, internal and social ones. The social reasons have the juridical grounds for beggary. They are the poor legal protection of inhabitants and the imperfection of some legislative regulations including the sphere of state charity.