La Révolution de 1905, l’émergence du parlementarisme et les finances de la monarchie russe au début du XXe siècle
The Revolution of 1905 forced the Russian autocracy to accept the convocation of the State Duma. After the Revolution's defeat, the Duma belonged to a new political system in which the Tsar conserved a very great power. The promulgation of the Law of March 8th 1906 imposed a significant restriction on the budgetary prerogatives of the Duma and allowed the Administration to maintain a real control over the financial field. In the facts, the political confrontation between tsarist power and liberal members of the Parliament did not make possible to engage the needed thorough reform of the structures and management practices of the Russian finances. This paper aims to clarify the stakes and reality of the changes as a result of the Revolution of 1905 and the formation of parliamentarism in the public finances development of the imperial Russia.
History of classical philology and the reception of Greek and Roman antiquity in Moldova (Moldavia, Bessarabia).
The Tsar Alexander II undertook to dismantle the archaic poll tax and thus, he opened the way for the modernization of the Russian tax system. Between the second half of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, a number of new taxes on the property was created. However, several projects aimed at establishing an income tax in Russia generated a lot of debates in the governmental circles, but they were dismissed for different reasons, which we will discuss hereafter. Therefore, the Revolution of 1905 and the First World War would be needed for the realization of this reform, which was promulgated on 6 April 1916. While the government was preparing to implement an innovative tax, which was based on the principles and procedures that break with the practices of the old regime, the Russian state and society were upset by the events of 1917.
The article is devoted to the single budget account. The research on its basic characteristics allows the author to conclude that its use is effective.
The article deals with various historical narratives which can be used as a framework for the Russian-Polish relations during the long XIX century in contemporary historiography, first of all the Russian one. A special attention is paid to the Polish factor in the context of systematic elaboration of the history of Russian empire as well as the identities of the Russian-Polish frontier.
Since the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union the historiography of revolutionary Russia has developed a distinct provincial turn. The opening of Soviet central and provincial archives provided new research opportunities to historians. Numerous articles and volumes focusing on Russia’s provinces have since appeared on both sides of the former Soviet border, and the historiography of the Russian revolution matured with an accelerated speed to account for multiple local variables. The understanding of multiplicity of local experiences profoundly changed and challenged the historical interpretations of the crisis that played out in Russia from 1917 to 1921. The article discusses the variety of local revolutionary experiences as they are revealed in recent historiography, but also focuses on some larger themes and issues where this regional perspective provides new insights and affects the general understanding of the Russian revolution. In particular, it discusses the factors contributing to the disintegration and reconstruction of the state, including the patterns and meaning of power in a provincial context, mechanisms of popular mobilization in the civil-war period including in Russia’s non-Russian regions, as well as transition to peace.
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference held in Šlapanice in the Czech Republic on 17-18 January 2013 at Masaryk University, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Public Economics.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.