Влияние новых мер российской демографической политики на вероятность рождения вторых и последующих детей
The article presents the results of the empirical assessment of the effects of 2007 measures of Russian population policy on the probability of the second and subsequent births. The estimates are based on the panel Russian Generations and Gender data conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2011. The study was performed within the project №14-05-0055 «The study of the dynamics of the formation and development of families and fertilityon basis of survey data" funded by the Research Fund for the HSE.
The article is devoted to combination’s possibilities of the family and professional employment in the Russia of today. The article is based on the information of comprehensive survey of the living conditions of the population which was made in Russia in 2011. On the base of statistic methods of analyses, particularly construction of tree targets, preferences of Russians were revealed in timing both of professional employment and education of children. Parents can be classify on 6 groups by the time which they devote to their children, first of all it depends on sex, the amount of persons in the family, location of the family, joint or separate from children. Employment strategy differs in range of conditions and time schedule. Parents devote their time to children depending on professional employment. There is not enough flexible labor market in Russia and entrepreneurial activity is low in the small family business. Solution of demographic problems, security of birthrate and effective parenting is impossible without family policy in the direction of reconciling family and professional roles.
Markedly low fertility rates in Russia and western European countries are real challenges for these states. The governments should determine what considerations guide the people who refuse giving birth to their fi rst or subsequent children, as well as the should understand what measures they can encourage parents to increase the number of children. The following paper shows that, as in Europe, it is very important in Russia to take into account indirect costs of children, and in Russia a parent who is meant in this situation is the mother. However, for Russia the possibility to have children is very closely related to the type of locality, which in the case of our country also means the difference in income and the difference in the established system of external child care.
The article deals with comparative analysis of family policies towards fatherhood. The author analyzes how family policy in different countries is a mens friendly. Contemporary family policies in different Western European countries include a specific set of support, addressed to father after the child birth. A leave to care for the child is an example which shows that the family policy creates different models of fatherhood. In conclusion the author argues that gender-based analysis of family policy, along with the study of the position of women with children should include fathers who have certain rights and responsibilities.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.