Практика принятия инвестиционных решений в российских компаниях
The author considers the conflict between NPV and IRR criteria in investment projects with non-conventional cash flows. This paper presents a new measure - the generalized net present value (GNPV) - to eliminate the disadvantages of the NPV in investment projects with non-conventional cash flows. The GNPV is a monotonically decreasing function of the discount rate with a single root - the GIRR, i.e. the rate of return of investment projects with non-conventional cash flows. The author formulates the GNPV and GIRR rule for investment justification and ranking, offers a criterion to differentiate between investment projects with non-conventional and conventional cash flows.
This article discusses the theoretical and methodological issues proposed for use in Russia of a new funding mechanism for big ticket investment leasing projects. To achieve this goal are the following: a new version of the classification of leasing with the view in her special place leveraged-leasing; a critical analysis of the model of leveraged leasing, identifying its strengths and weaknesses; developed proposals for the formation of the Russian model leveraged-leasing; analyzed the feasibility of a mechanism of syndicated lending in the leveraged-leasing; is the formation of quantitative and qualitative criteria for big ticket transactions for Russian leasing market, taking into account the foreign and domestic experience; set a price on leasing contracts on interest rates, taking into account the necessary redundancy associated with the assessment of welfare and allowances for losses on defaulted lessors and lessees; using regression analysis, the hypothesis is that, despite the increased risks from the lessor, are associated with increased incidence and duration of contracts, reduce the advances, the relative reduction of prices on realization of investment projects in the leveraged-leasing; developped а methodology for determining leverage leasing projects; prepare recommendations on formation of pricing models leverage-leasing; analyzes the proportions between financial institutions in overseas leasing transactions and in the Russian leasing market; is determined by the relevance and benefits of using this model for Russia.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.