The article describes the structure of cost of crime to society. The structure is based on time parameters that represent successive stages of criminological activity. The author defines 3 main elements of crime cost: 1) cost of potential victims, society and state related to expectation of crime; 2) real damage to victims, society and state by individual crimes; 3) costs related to society and authorities’ reaction to individual crimes. The author analyses methodological basis that are required to develop methods to estimate costs related to society and authorities’ reaction to individual crimes (especially, the costs directed to maintenance of authorities that are involved in crime counteraction as well as in other activity. The author suggests his own method of estimation of state costs related to criminal trials. The method is based on time spent on criminal trials (proceedings). The author concludes that it is necessary to develop new regulations on Judges’ workload.
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter