Установка для измерения гальваномагнитных параметров полупроводниковых материалов путем поворота образца в поле постоянного магнита
For a number of practical applications, it is necessary to carry out the galvanomagnetic measurements of samples of semiconductor materials in different magnetic fields, covering the widest possible range of values of the magnetic field. Analysis of the field dependence of the Hall coefficient provides information about the values of the concentration and mobility of free charge carriers
The luminosity of accreting magnetized neutron stars can largely exceed the Eddington value due to appearance of accretion columns. The height of the columns can be comparable to the neutron star radius. The columns produce the X-rays detected by the observer directly and illuminate the stellar surface, which reprocesses the X-rays and causes additional component of the observed flux. The geometry of the column and the illuminated part of the surface determine the radiation beaming. Curved space-time affects the angular flux distribution. We construct a simple model of the beam patterns formed by direct and reflected flux from the column. We take into account the possibility of appearance of accretion columns, whose height is comparable to the neutron star radius. We argue that depending on the compactness of the star, the flux from the column can be either strongly amplified due to gravitational lensing, or significantly reduced due to column eclipse by the star. The eclipses of high accretion columns result in specific features in pulse profiles. Their detection can put constraints on the neutron star radius. We speculate that column eclipses are observed in X-ray pulsar V 0332+53, leading us to the conclusion of large neutron star radius in this system (˜15 km if M ˜ 1.4 M⊙). We point out that the beam pattern can be strongly affected by scattering in the accretion channel at high luminosity, which has to be taken into account in the models reproducing the pulse profiles.
We present thorough measurements of the intrinsic detection efficiency in the wavelength range from 350 to 2500 nm for meander-type TaN and NbN superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different widths of the nanowire. The width varied from 70 nm to 130 nm. The open-beam configuration allowed us to accurately normalize measured spectra and to extract the intrinsic detection efficiency. For detectors from both materials the intrinsic detection efficiency at short wavelengths amounts at 100% and gradually decreases at wavelengths larger than the specific cut-off wavelengths, which decreases with the width of the nanowire. Furthermore, we show that applying weak magnetic fields perpendicular to the meander plane decreases the smallest detectable photon flux.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.