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## Non-adiabatic electron charge pumping in coupled semiconductor quantum dots

We analyzed theoretically localized charge relaxation in a double quantum dot (QD) system coupled with continuous spectrum states in the presence of localized electrons Coulomb interaction in a single QD. We have found that for a wide range of system parameters charge relaxation occurs through two stable regimes with significantly different relaxation rates. A peculiar time moment exists in the system at which rapid switching between stable regimes takes place. We consider this phenomenon to be applicable for creation of active elements in nano-electronics based on the fast transition effect between two stable states.

We present a general methodology for evaluating structure factors defining the orientation dependence of tunneling ionization rates of molecules, which is a key process in strong-field physics. The method is implemented at the Hartree-Fock level of electronic structure theory and is based on an integralequation approach to the weak-field asymptotic theory of tunneling ionization, which expresses the structure factor in terms of an integral involving the ionizing orbital and a known analytical function. The evaluation of the required integrals is done by three-dimensional quadrature which allows calculations using conventional quantum chemistry software packages. This extends the applications of the weak-field asymptotic theory to polyatomic molecules of almost arbitrary size. The method is tested by comparison with previous results and illustrated by calculating structure factors for the two degenerate highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of benzene and for the HOMO and HOMO-1 of naphthalene

A method based on the spectral analysis of thermowave oscillations formed under the effect of radiation of lasers operated in a periodic pulsed mode is developed for investigating the state of the interface of multilayered systems. The method is based on high sensitivity of the shape of the oscillating component of the pyrometric signal to adhesion characteristics of the phase interface. The shape of the signal is quantitatively estimated using the correlation coefficient (for a film–interface system) and the transfer function (for multilayered specimens).

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.