Международное сравнительное исследование PIRLS 2011 «Изучение качества чтения и понимания текста» и его основные результаты
Th e aim of the study is to explore the levels of reading literacy of Russian fi rst-year university students both in Russian and in English in a bilingual learning environment. We have developed an instrument using PISA reading literacy test in order to assess reading skills and reading literacy of students in their native and foreign languages. Th e study reveals that reading literacy levels in Russian is higher than in English, yet it reaches the highest levels of text interpretation and evaluation in neither of the languages.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.