Критика концепции договора банковского счета как самостоятельного вида гражданских договоров
Th e author criticizes a widespread doctrinal position that money on current accounts are not the
clients’ property and could not be the object of vindication from the bank or from the third parties illegally
holding this money.
Modern meaning of the term “irregular custody” (depositum irregulare) is diff erent as compared
with that in Roman law because in the Medieval times the custody contract was changed. Th e elements
of Roman law contracts of regular custody and irregular custody (“old irregular custody”) were joined
to the new legal construction, that is “new irregular custody”.
Commercial bank is a kind of a warehouse. Th e current account contracts are not a special type of
civil law contracts. Th ey are more akin to warehouse storage contracts. Proper money regime on current
account should be as the storage in a warehouse (new irregular custody).
Th e reform of general legal regime of bank accounts is necessary to divide them into a) current accounts
in the custody regime with general ban for the banks to use this money and pay interest to clients,
b) deposit accounts in the loan regime with prohibition of their pre-schedule withdrawing by clients.
Both the vindication lawsuit and breach of contract lawsuit are able to protect the rights of parties
of the current account contract.
It appears that there is “individual mixed property” between all owners of money on current accounts
in a certain bank.
It is suggested that the classifi cation of civil contracts should be based upon economic (sometimes
moral) fi nal expected eff ects, and upon technical aspects of their performance, as well as public law
obligations of their parties etc.