The catalogue of semantic shifts as a database for lexical semantic typology.
The article deals, in a typological perspective, with verbs describing sounds of inanimate objects (cf. the noise of a door being opened, of coins in somebody’s pocket, of a river, etc.). The analysis is based on the data from four languages (Russian, German, Komi-Zyrjan, Khanty), which were obtained from dictionaries, corpora and field investigation. We discuss, first, the primary meanings of these verbs and identify the parameters that underlie semantic distinctions between them (type of sound source and its features, type of situation causing the emission of a sound, acoustic properties of sounds). Then we consider the derived meanings of sound verbs, which are developed through metonymic and metaphoric shifts and analyze the mechanisms behind each of these shifts. Finally, we examine a type of semantic change in our data which cannot be explained in terms of either of those mechanisms and hence represents a separate kind of meaning shift.
The work reveals the characteristic features of the contemporary American press, its structure, typology, the system of regulation and self-regulation of the press, the changes took place due to the development of Internet. The article also shows the today situation in the newspapers market of the USA, changes in the activity of the leading American newspapers.
This article is devoted to the study of the population’s ethnic structure in regions of Russia and former RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic) as well as the temporal dynamics of major ethnic groups by means of mathematical and cartographic modelling. Integrated indicators are developed to estimate ethnic diversity in regions of Russia and former RSFSR (ethnic diversity index and its modification – ethnic diversity index adjusted for the ability to speak Russian), and cluster analysis is performed to offer typological classification of Russian regions based on their ethnic composition. Maps are created on the basis of the derived indicators and typological classification. Finally, the estimates of the share of major ethnic groups up to 2030 are provided.
The article examines cultural preconditions for search and classification of the types within theoretical psychology of personality. Special features of the European culture of thinking, cultural conditions of the historic emergence of the personality types, usage of the cultural experience for development of the authors' personality typologies as well as cultural determination and orientation of the personal traits are among them. The model of cultural and psychological typification of the personality relations based on the above preconditions is offered.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.