Эволюция государственной промышленной политики в России
The paper describes the evolution in 1990-s and 2000-s of approaches of Russian state towards industrial policy, which is understood as a policy facilitating structural changes in the economy. The mentioned evolution took place simultaneously with the development of theoretical paradigms of industrial policy in the economic literature both in Russia and in the World, and with extensive use of different instruments of industrial policy as well. Authors aim to analyze and summarize the Russian experiences in applying different instruments of industrial policy and to discuss the reasons for success and failures of those experiments. The paper formulates some lessons to be drawn from the extensive Russian experience that may improve the efficiency of such a policy, and puts some question for the discussion on the industrial policy issue.
We assess the effects of state-controlled "national champions" on the concentration and efficiency of the Russian banking industry. Our main hypothesis is that the unusual findings of the empirical studies reflect a specific institutional structure of the Russian banking market, namely the dominant position of the state-controlled players who are essentially different institutions than other commercial banks. The novelty is that we offer an alternative view of the market structure in an industry dominated by state-controlled entities, namely by consolidating their market shares into a combined market share.
Economic development of Singapore has become one of the vivid examples of transition of a developing country towards a group of First World economies. Singapore's economic success was achieved mainly due to the interventionist measures implemented by the Government and embodied in the industrial policy.
Among key problems of strategic development of the Russian Federation – a gain of the advanced positions in a global competition, an exit on standards of a life of the developed countries. Methods of achievement of the proclaimed priorities among which predominate an emphasis on realisation of innovations and optimisation of use of regional and human potentials are defined also. It means also working out of essentially new domestic industrial policy which main objective – stimulation of transition of a national economy on the way of development allowing a science and hi-tech sectors of the industry to become by the locomotive of economic growth, to provide adequate conditions for development for industrial sector of economy. Many questions concerning a theme of research carried out in the given collection, successfully dare in the European countries. Therefore studying a positive European experience important for decrease in vulnerability of domestic economy in the face of many global problems. These problems demand today adequate reactions at level of an industrial policy, start of new industrial strategy. In this work it is a lot of the specific proposals directed on the further development of the Russian industry. Authors have formulated both new tactical and strategic ideas, not ordinary decisions for achievement of leadership in the field in the future.
The article authors dwell on the international practices gained in promoting industrial diversification. One of the key barriers that hamper the process in the emerging economies is the existence of the underdeveloped financial system backed by the vast amount of natural resources and the lack of a chain of production that could integrate the domestic hi-tech companies. As a result, the costs associated with the attraction of borrowed funds become quite high. This is especially true it you take the innovative companies that operate in the SME sector. The article authors identify the ways to form hi-tech sectors on the basis of resource-intensive sectors.
The goal of this study is to examine the performance of the Russian economy during the 2000’s. The authors study sources of economic growth during the period applying growth accounting framework and discussing standard assumptions and statistical problems. The relatively intensive growth of the Russian economy was accompanied by a very slow decline of inflation rates. The Chapter discusses the specific features of the recent consumer price rise and considers several manifestations of inflation persistence during the last decade.
Economic development of Singapore has become one of the vivid examples of transition of a developing country to the group of First World economies. Singapores economic success was achieved mainly due to the interventionist measures implemented by the government and embodied in industrial policy. This positive experience can be also of interest to Russia pursuing to modernize the economy and to shift away from raw materials export dependency. This article contains analysis of the main stages, instruments, results of industrial policy of Singapore, and policy implications for Russia.
To help countries achieve their full industrialization potential and fulfil the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and thereby improve their general welfare, UNIDO is promoting the concept of comprehensive and sustainable industrial development (ISID), which was established in the Lima Declaration adopted by UNIDO Member States on 2 December 2013. The UN General Assembly recognizes the significance of ISID as an important strategic direction for fostering global development in the future. ISID is a key instrument for achieving sustainable economic growth, the creation of quality jobs, the building of equal societies, the protection of the environment, and the active shaping of comprehensive sustainable globalization. The promotion of ISID as the key driver for successful integration of economic, social and environmental factors necessary to achieve full implementation of sustainable development by creating and improving countries’ industrial potential is the main priority of UNIDO’s current activities. To successfully implement ISID, UNIDO acts as a global forum for industrial development and the establishment of relevant international standards, including standards on industrial statistics [UNIDO, 2014; 2013a]. Accordingly, UNIDO has been implementing the regional project “Improvement of industrial statistics and development of statistical indicators for the analysis of industrial development in the CIS countries” since 2013. The project’s main objective is to provide methodological assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States’ (CIS) national statistical services in implementing international standards on industrial statistics in the statistical practice and presentation of modern, internationally comparable information for a qualitative and reliable reflection of industrial development processes. This report presents the results of the statistical analysis describing the availability, quality and measurement capabilities of official statistics in the CIS countries accumulated over the period 2005-2014.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.