Youth Unemployment and Vocational Training
This paper focuses on the determinants of the labor market situation of young people in developed countries and the developing world, with a particular emphasis on the role of vocational training and education policies. We highlight the role of demographic factors, economic growth and labor market institutions in explaining young people's transition into work. Subsequently, we assess differences between the setup and functioning of the vocational education and training policies across major world regions as an important driver of differential labor market situation of youth. Based on our analysis, we argue in favor of vocational education and training systems combining work experience and general education and provide some policy recommendations regarding the implementation of education and training systems adapted to a country's economic and institutional context.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
Youth unemployment and joblessness are major issues for national governments and international organizations across the globe. In this respect, the school-to-work transition challenge is increasingly raising the interest of companies, education and training institutions, families and young people themselves, who are often involved in precarious and illegal forms of employment worldwide. In the field of industrial and labour relations, the school-to-work perspective seems particularly suitable for policy formulation and assessment: the broad and complex range of tools, strategies and policies for enabling youth training and their access to the labour market is deserving of a closer analysis at an international level in a time when jobless recovery threatens national economies. In this connection, this volume of the "Adapt Labour Studies Book-Series" has been set up with a view for achieving a better understanding of the causes, consequences and possible responses to the issue in a global dimension through an interdisciplinary and comparative approach.
The article considers the practices of performance-based pay applied in the vocational education and training (VET) institutions. It was found that VET institutions used different tools to adopt «effective contract» due to ambiguity of the institutional environment. The study suggests, that more favorable conditions for performancebased pay occur in VET organizations, which have cooperation with business (employers for graduates) interested in skilled workers and in employment of the graduates. This is due to abilities of VET to attract additional funding from business, to develop quality assessment system and requirements for the results of teacher’s work.
Technical competencies and specific engineering skills alone are not sufficient in the modern labor market but employers expect engineers to actively promote the products they create. Engineers often perceive their skills differently than employers do. Insufficient university training in a number of fields including the development of social, management and communication skills leads to an objective and understandable gap between the perceived and the required levels of such competencies. Based on the results of a survey of 3158 engineers conducted in 2011 in the Russian Federation, the study shows a number of deficits in the perception of innovation skills and the respective demand for these.
The article belongs to research category and deals with the analysis of educational statistics on student currents including young people enrolling into universities, colleges and professional technical schools of the Russian Federation. The aim of the article is to describe and analyze new balance between student currents in higher and secondary professional education as well as the consequences for higher educational university development strategies related to the changes of the balance. The main research method used in the article is the analysis of statistic data dynamic sets related to student enrollment to professional education programs. The main result of the research is the conclusion on the achieved balance of students choosing secondary and higher professional education programs during the period of 2001–2014. Data provided in the article allow for making a conclusion that in the coming years student characteristics would play a much more important restrictive role in implementing university and college development strategies than financial resources. The novelty of the article is related to treating student currents as a specific type of managerial resource that is gaining an essential role for professional education institutions in the context of demographic crisis.
The main goals, objectives and results of the ongoing project fulfillment on development and implementation of the automatized system on the collection, analysis and representation of the information about functioning of the structure of the vocational education and training (VTE) system in the Federal subjects of Russia are presented. The features and capabilities of the automatized system for different types of users, methodological and technological aspects of the interaction with users are discussed, some global statistical indicators of education on the VTE programs in the country for 2011-2012, calculated on the base of the data loaded, are given.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.