### Article

## Finding Optimal Production and Selling Strategies for an Electricity Generator in a Part of a Country’s Electrical Grid

A part of a country’s electrical grid in which an electricity generator (which may consist of several base load power plants

and several peaking power plants) supplies electricity to a set of large customers of the grid, whereas the customers can a)

receive electricity from renewable sources of energy, b) store electricity in certain volumes, and c) buy electricity in the

markets is considered. It is proposed to describe the interaction of the generator, the large grid customers, and the

transmission company (under uncertainty of the customer demand for electricity) by a game with a finite (more than three)

number of players on polyhedra of player strategies some of which are connected and thus cannot be chosen by the players

independently of each other. Sucient conditions for the game equilibria verifiable by solving three linear programming

problems are proposed, and the equilibria particularly determine optimal production and selling strategies for the generator.

The paper discusses a new approach to developing tools for quantitatively analyzing the financial behavior of small and medium price-taking traders each possessing abilities to predict share price values for a set of financial securities traded in a stock exchange. Tools for forming and managing a trader’s portfolio of securities from this set are proposed. Particularly, it is shown that when the trader can treat share price values from the portfolio as random variables with known (to her) distributions, an optimal portfolio composition is found by solving a linear programming problem. Otherwise, this optimal composition is found as the trader’s equilibrium strategy in an antagonistic two-person game with the stock exchange being the other player. In this game on polyhedra of disjoint player strategies, described by systems of linear equations and inequalities of a balance kind, calculating saddle points is reduced to solving linear programming problems forming a dual pair.

The maximin of a function being the minimum function of a sum of two bilinear functions with one and the same first vector argument belonging to a polyhedron is considered on a polyhedron of connected variables forming two second vector arguments of the bilinear functions. It is shown that finding the exact lower estimate of this maximin is reducible to solving a quadratic programming problem.

In this paper the basic properties of different types of equilibrium concepts in antagonistic games with various preference structures are considered.

This is the first book on the U.S. presidential election system to analyze the basic principles underlying the design of the existing system and those at the heart of competing proposals for improving the system. The book discusses how the use of some election rules embedded in the U.S. Constitution and in the Presidential Succession Act may cause skewed or weird election outcomes and election stalemates. The book argues that the act may not cover some rare though possible situations which the Twentieth Amendment authorizes Congress to address. Also, the book questions the constitutionality of the National Popular Vote Plan to introduce a direct popular presidential election de facto, without amending the Constitution, and addresses the plan’s “Achilles’ Heel.” In particular, the book shows that the plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Numerical examples are provided to show that the counterintuitive claims of the NPV originators and proponents that the plan will encourage presidential candidates to “chase” every vote in every state do not have any grounds. Finally, the book proposes a plan for improving the election system by combining at the national level the “one state, one vote” principle – embedded in the Constitution – and the “one person, one vote” principle. Under this plan no state loses its current Electoral College benefits while all the states gain more attention of presidential candidates.

Contents of the book is divided into 2 parts of deterministic and stochastic models of Operations Research.

The first part of "Deterministic models of Operations Research" - is the base section, in which the emphasis is on linear programming.

The second part - "Stochastic models of Operations Research" includes a model of reliability and queuing models. This is original material.

The textbook can be useful to students of undergraduate and graduate programs in areas of training in "Applied Mathematics", "Applied Mathematics and Computer Science", "Information systems and technologies", as well as graduate students and science teachers who are interested in the problems of optimization in stochastic models

In this paper we consider games with preference relations. The main optimality concept for such games is concept of equilibrium. We introduce a notion of homomorphism for games with preference relations and study a problem concerning connections between equilibrium points of games which are in a homomorphic relation. The main result is finding covariantly and contravariantly complete families of homomorphisms.

The manual is devoted to the mathematical theory and methods of optimization applied to administrative decisions in economy. Volume 1 described approaches to mathematical modeling of management problems in economy and methods of mathematical programming tasks solution. Besides strict mathematical proofs, there are directing reasons, which is sometimes enough for understanding. There are many economic examples and exercises with detailed solutions. Readers are supposed to know the bases of the mathematical analysis and linear algebra, though necessary data from these courses in a concise form are provided in appendices.

A new statistical approach to alignment (finding the longest common subsequence) of two random RNA-type sequences is proposed. We have constructed a generalized ‘dynamic programming’ algorithm for finding the extreme value of the free energy of two noncoding RNAs. In our procedure, we take into account the binding free energy of two random heteropolymer chains which are capable of forming the cloverleaf-like spatial structures typical for RNA molecules. The algorithm is based on two observations: (i) the standard alignment problem can be considered as a zero-temperature limit of a more general statistical problem of binding of two associating heteropolymer chains; (ii) this last problem can be generalized naturally to consider sequences with hierarchical cloverleaf-like structures (i.e. of RNA type). The approach also permits us to perform a ‘secondary structure recovery’. Namely, we can predict the optimal secondary structures of interacting RNAs in a zero-temperature limit knowing only their primary sequences.

Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.

One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.