Russia has to modernise. There is a widespread assumption that this can happen only by way of an authoritarian modernisation. Only the bureaucracy, the army, and the ruling party come into question as the supporters of such a course of modernisation. But in Russia, none of these institutions is interested in modernisation, to say nothing of being in a position to implement it. The Putin regime has manoeuvred Russia into a dead end. Only insight into the necessity of a simultaneous reform of the political system, the state structure, and the economy offers Russia the chance of embarking on the path of modernisation.
Recent advances in neuroscience gave rise to new fascinating ideas and issues in social sciences. However, neuronal processes are still perceived as irrelevant for a typical sociological research. This is partially the sequence of a limited explanatory power of social neuroscience rooted in the mind-body problem. But sociological research ignoring brain processes is equally weak. We consider key features and problems both of neurophysiologic and sociological explanations, taking maternal behavior as an example. We then attempt to formulate conditions of integrative neurosociological explanation, and propose a three-factor model of maternal behavior.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.