The Real Effects of Financial Constraints: Evidence from a Debt Subsidization Program Targeted at Strategic Firms
In the late 2000s, a number of analysts were optimistic about Brazil’s future. Their expectant analyses did not bear out, however, as a political and economic crisis developed just as Brazil was gearing up to host two mega-events, the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympic Games in 2016. This paper has two aims. The first is to deepen our understanding of the crisis through examining one of the foremost social actors to emerge in this period: the Landless Workers’ Movement (Movimento de Trabalhadores Sem-Teto, MTST). The second is to use this case to consider the potential for the sociology of critical capacity—a field of theory that emerged out of the Political and Moral Sociology Research Group in Paris in the 1980s—to contribute to theorising the ‘justification work’ of movements and protest publics.
The offered principles allowed determining the landmarks of development of modern socio-economic systems that strive for “conflict-free” character. Based on these principles, it is possible to develop a fundamental platform for studying “conflict-free” socio-economic systems.
This paper aims to explore the dominant model of the national identity of Russians. Drawing on the national representative survey data conducted in Autumn 2015 by the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Science, the author comes to a conclusion that Russians demonstrate a socio-cultural consensus in their attitudes towards state and society. Russians perceive society as Power passing the responsibility for the sustainable and equitable development to the state. The statism of Russia is a bottom-up phenomenon since people of Russia overwhelmingly support a priority of the society’s interests over the ones of an individual. The majority perceives Russia as a unique civilization that should avoid the Western way of modernization. The idea of the ‘unique way’ is a distinct feature of the national identity of Russians; it plays a pivotal role in the societal cohesion of the whole society. In this model, the state is considered to be responsible for any breach in the society, in particular for the injustice and exploitation. That’s why the growing number of violations of the rights of Russian workers increases the risks of societal conflicts and lead to a delegitimisation of the official authorities. In conclusion, the author suggests the state being more responsible for the Russian nation in the sense of protecting the population from the structural violence and exploitation.
Many European Union states have adjusted pension benefits or reformed the pension system in reaction to the recent economic crisis, while other member states have postponed this type of adjustments. In this paper we study to what extent countries that responded quickly to the crisis are harmed by the lingering in other member states via international spillover effects caused by factor mobility and trade. We show that this depends crucially on the degree of labour mobility in the short run. In fact, countries with more flexible pensions can benefit from the inflexibility of pensions in other countries if they can temporarily limit immigration.
The obtained conclusions show opposition of stagnation and sustainable development. Stagnation is absence of economic growth and development, regardless of social and ecological costs of economic activities. Contrary to it, sustainable development means stable economic growth with low social and ecological costs of economic activities. That’s why stagnation of economy is a negative phenomenon. Unlike crises, stagnation could and should be avoided with the help of the corresponding (anti-stagnation) measures of crisis management.
This article is about the market conditions of the bank corporate loans’ modifications by the mean of historical analysis of Russian economies evolution.