От камня к керамике
The article discribes the history of iron as an important social-cultural artifact
The article represents a reconstruction of the Moscow University's students' monthly budgets. Listed are both their incomes and expenses. The most common wa the budget of 25 rubles per month. The estimation of the students' incomes is based on the information about the governmental and the private scholarships, "The Society for the Assistance of students in Reduced Circumstances" aid, the freelancing opportunities and the family support. Monthly expenses include rent, food and various entertainments. The estimations are based on the statistics of the food pricing, average rental costs and scholarships, as well as freelance jobs announcements for students. The author outlines two types of the perfect students' budgets, which could reflect students expenditures with differing interests
The article focuses on the features of the everyday life of children whose parents were victims of political repression. Chronological framework of the study is limited to the period of the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945). The study was mainly conducted on the materials of the Molotov region (Perm region nowadays). The objects of the study are the three most significant categories of “socially dangerous” children: those whose parents were convicted for political reasons, those who with their parents were deported to special settlements before and during the war, and mobilized to the labor army minors, belonged to peoples, recognized as “hostile to the USSR”. The authors discuss the features of the welfare of the social groups in question, in particular, providing them with food, clothing and other vital things. Special attention is paid to identifying local attitudes towards “outsiders”, that have received the state stigma of“enemy of the people”, “deportees”, etc. The authors present numerous facts of discrimination against children of “enemies of the people”. The authors also draw attention to features of the perception of those children in cities and the countryside where they lived. In particular, it is stated that their life in the countryside generally was quieter than in the city. Special attention is paid to the mental peculiarities of everyday life of children whose parents were suppressed in their civil rights. Unlike other categories of children, the children of “enemies of the people” were afraid not only of the war and that was connected with it. They were also afraid of losing loved ones because of the persecution of the authorities. A large number of memories associated with fear were caused by experiences during the arrest of relatives. Children “of enemies of the people” were afraid to be punished. Unlike other children, they felt that they may be punished not only for poor schoolwork or bad behavior. Punishment from the authorities frightened a lot more. This fear of punishment was formed by the atmosphere of terror. In addition, the authors draw attention to the impact of frightening pictures of war seen by the children on their perception of the world. Analyzing the everyday realities of the children of “enemies of the people” in wartime, the authors identify some specific features that distinguish them from the realities of other children’s life. The stigma of “enemy of the people” affects the education, communication with peers and adults. The life of these children was impregnated with the fear of punishment, since they were under constant control by the state. Problems in communication with peers and adults, frequent failure and preach provoked such children developing an inferiority complex. The children were faced with an artificially created image of an enemy, with the result that the stigma of “enemy of the people” divided their society into two groups: those who are not afraid to break through the officially established boundaries, and those who made the decision on self-preserving and protecting his family with least resistance to the state.
The series of studies collected in theis book represent different approaches of their authors to the problem of privat life in the past.
The first synthesized and X-ray structurally characterized ‘‘classical’’ iron(I) dioximate showed an unrivaled stability towards strong acids, thus calling for a reassessment of the origins of the electrocatalytic activity of similar low-valent cobalt and iron cage complexes with electron-withdrawing ribbed substituents, shown previously to be effective electrocatalysts of the HER
In article on the basis of a case study examines the everyday life of the Stalinist system. Postwar political campaign was broadcast on the world of Soviet man. The study of conflict within the school community, helps to understand the strength of practices that used an ordinary Soviet people beyond the boundaries of the world of big politics. Professional conflict between the teacher of history and Director of the school suddenly acquired political resonance. The quarrel went outside educational institutions, and became the subject of discussion of various political and administrative authorities. The teacher of history and continued the fight in new institution.