Некоммерческие организации и волонтерство
Many industries of a modern economy display the interaction of private and public agents and volunteers. In this paper we discuss current attempts to explain the existence of nonprofit firms, phenomenon of altruism, comparative characteristics of economic behavior in all three sectors. The authors explore altruistic motives. They consider also a case of community transport in several countries. The research was carried out as provided by the HSE program of fundamental studies in 2013.
A study of discursive identities oppositions in terms of the two semantically close words denoting "volunteers", the one being a local Russian word and the other, an international one, reveals some typical meanings of volunteer participation in Russian volunteer movement. It is shown that the differences between "volunteer" and local "dobrovolets (good-willer)" conceptualized in two main lines: (1) as an opposition of the references to the country's history and to contemporary social and linguistic contexts, (2) as an opposition of the native word, which is clear to understand to a foreign language word, whose meaning cannot intuitively be caught. Temporal oppositions have ambivalent connotations, while, for example, contemporary volunteerism is referred to ‘actions’ and ‘old-fashioned dobrovol’chestvo is referred to ‘real deeds’.
Many industries of a modern economy display the interaction of private and public agents. In this paper we analyze the organization of bus network and discuss the characteristics of modeling the competition between fi rms in the bus industry. The author describes the simple model of competition between public and private fi rms and the equilibrium: the prices and the quality of this service set by private and public fi rms. In addition, the author discusses some possible modifi cations of the simple model. The research was carried out as provided by the HSE program of fundamental studies in 2010.
Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence of sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. The nature of the effect of external funding is conceptualized taking several perspectives. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.