Некоммерческие организации и волонтерство
Many industries of a modern economy display the interaction of private and public agents and volunteers. In this paper we discuss current attempts to explain the existence of nonprofit firms, phenomenon of altruism, comparative characteristics of economic behavior in all three sectors. The authors explore altruistic motives. They consider also a case of community transport in several countries. The research was carried out as provided by the HSE program of fundamental studies in 2013.
A study of discursive identities oppositions in terms of the two semantically close words denoting "volunteers", the one being a local Russian word and the other, an international one, reveals some typical meanings of volunteer participation in Russian volunteer movement. It is shown that the differences between "volunteer" and local "dobrovolets (good-willer)" conceptualized in two main lines: (1) as an opposition of the references to the country's history and to contemporary social and linguistic contexts, (2) as an opposition of the native word, which is clear to understand to a foreign language word, whose meaning cannot intuitively be caught. Temporal oppositions have ambivalent connotations, while, for example, contemporary volunteerism is referred to ‘actions’ and ‘old-fashioned dobrovol’chestvo is referred to ‘real deeds’.
Many industries of a modern economy display the interaction of private and public agents. In this paper we analyze the organization of bus network and discuss the characteristics of modeling the competition between fi rms in the bus industry. The author describes the simple model of competition between public and private fi rms and the equilibrium: the prices and the quality of this service set by private and public fi rms. In addition, the author discusses some possible modifi cations of the simple model. The research was carried out as provided by the HSE program of fundamental studies in 2010.
Previous research has examined the financial and volunteer problems of non-profit sport clubs in an isolated manner and has neglected the influence of sponsorship and subsidy funding, which we term as external funding, may have on both problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of this external funding on financial and volunteer problems, and the relationship between both types of problems. The nature of the effect of external funding is conceptualized taking several perspectives. Using data from a survey of sport clubs in Germany a bivariate probit model is estimated. The results provide evidence that both problems are interrelated. Clubs relying on sponsorship income experience larger financial and volunteer problems, while subsidies only increase volunteer problems. Moreover, club philosophy variables significantly impact both types of problems while governance structure does not. Internal revenues and miscellaneous external revenues have no significant impact on either type of problem. The findings have implications for club management.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.