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## Quantum state majorization at the output of bosonic Gaussian channels

We show that every output state of a phase insensitive bosonic Gaussian channel is majorized by the output of the channel applied to an arbitrary coherent state. The proof is based on the optimality of coherent states for the minimization of strictly concave output functionals. Moreover we show that coherent states are the unique optimizers.

The subject of this book is theory of quantum system presented from information science perspective. The central role is played by the concept of quantum channel and its entropic and information characteristics. Quantum information theory gives a key to understanding elusive phenomena of quantum world and provides a background for development of experimental techniques that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems. This is important for the new efficient applications such as quantum computing, communication and cryptography. Research in the field of quantum informatics, including quantum information theory, is in progress in leading scientific centers throughout the world. This suggests a need for a text that not only introduces the basic concepts of quantum information theory, but also presents in detail some of its recent achievements. The book gives an accessible, albeit mathematically rigorous and self-contained introduction to the subject, starting from primary structures and leading to fundamental results and to exiting open problems.

One of the major achievements of the recently emerged quantum information theory is the introduction and thorough investigation of the notion of quantum channel which is a basic building block of any data-transmitting or data-processing system. This development resulted in an elaborated structural theory and was accompanied by the discovery of a whole spectrum of entropic quantities, notably the channel capacities, characterizing information-processing performance of the channels. This paper gives a survey of the main properties of quantum channels and of their entropic characterization, with a variety of examples for finite dimensional quantum systems. We also touch upon the ``continuous-variables'' case, which provides an arena for quantum Gaussian systems. Most of the practical realizations of quantum information processing were implemented in such systems, in particular based on principles of quantum optics. Several important entropic quantities are introduced and used to describe the basic channel capacity formulas. The remarkable role of the specific quantum correlations -- entanglement -- as a novel communication resource, is stressed.

We study the relation between the unassisted and entanglement-assisted classical capacities $C,C_{ea}$ of entanglement-breaking channels. We argue that the gain of entanglement assistance $C_{ea}/C>1$ generically for measurement channels with \emph{unsharp} observables; in particular for the measurements with pure posterior states the information loss in the entanglement-assisted protocol is zero, resulting in arbitrarily large gain for very noisy or weak signal channels. This is illustrated by examples of continuous observables corresponding to state tomography in finite dimensions and heterodyne measurement. On the contrary, state preparations are characterized by the property of having \emph{no gain} of entanglement assistance, $C_{ea}/C=1$.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Generalized error-locating codes are discussed. An algorithm for calculation of the upper bound of the probability of erroneous decoding for known code parameters and the input error probability is given. Based on this algorithm, an algorithm for selection of the code parameters for a specified design and input and output error probabilities is constructed. The lower bound of the probability of erroneous decoding is given. Examples of the dependence of the probability of erroneous decoding on the input error probability are given and the behavior of the obtained curves is explained.

Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability