Понятие драгоценных металлов и драгоценных камней
This paper contains an attempt to provide definitions of the notions “precious metals” and “precious stones”. The author has proposed the term “turnover of precious metals and precious stones”. Tutnover of precious metals and precious stones is a complicated process from mining of precious metals and precious stones until entering the civil circulation.
The article analyzes the opinions of the specialized organizations — the World Jewellery Confederation, American Gem Trade Association — on the definition of precious metals and precious stones, as well as the provisions of the legislation of foreign countries, in particular, Botswana and Namibia.
This article devoted to the connection between the legal regulation of precious metals and precious stones in the Russian Federation and budget law. According legislation funds obtained from the sale of precious metals and precious stones can be used as one of internal sources for budget deficit financing.
The paper makes a brief introduction into multiple classifier systems and describes a particular algorithm which improves classification accuracy by making a recommendation of an algorithm to an object. This recommendation is done under a hypothesis that a classifier is likely to predict the label of the object correctly if it has correctly classified its neighbors. The process of assigning a classifier to each object involves here the apparatus of Formal Concept Analysis. We explain the principle of the algorithm on a toy example and describe experiments with real-world datasets.
The present edition represents the scientifically-practical comment to the Federal act «About precious metals and jewels» (further - the Law). From the moment of the introduction of the Law into force has passed more than ten years. For this period changes have been made, accepted or the subordinate legislation specifying and supplementing sphere of action of the present Law has changed. The comment is constituted taking into account last changes and additions, and also the normative acts published after an adoption of law.
Considering traditional closeness and specificity of branch, authors have considered necessary for more complete understanding of the mentioned questions to supply separate articles of the comment with the allocated blocks in which short historical digression or the information inquiry contains.
The book is relevant for undergraduate and postgraduate students, professors, research and practising lawyers and those who are interested in the theory and practice of the legislation in sphere of precious metals and jewels.
Symbolic classifiers allow for solving classification task and provide the reason for the classifier decision. Such classifiers were studied by a large number of researchers and known under a number of names including tests, JSM-hypotheses, version spaces, emerging patterns, proper predictors of a target class, representative sets etc. Here we consider such classifiers with restriction on counter-examples and discuss them in terms of pattern structures. We show how such classifiers are related. In particular, we discuss the equivalence between good maximally redundant tests and minimal JSM-hyposethes and between minimal representations of version spaces and good irredundant tests.
In this paper, we use robust optimization models to formulate the support vector machines (SVMs) with polyhedral uncertainties of the input data points. The formulations in our models are nonlinear and we use Lagrange multipliers to give the first-order optimality conditions and reformulation methods to solve these problems. In addition, we have proposed the models for transductive SVMs with input uncertainties.
We proposed the nonlinear dynamic model of the formation of the market prices of precious metals based on the econophysic considerations. This model is a system of three ordinary differential equations relating the time dependence of elasticity, variations of bid and ask prices; it is similar to the Lorenz system. The areas of the dynamic stochasticity in experimental data were found with the comparing of the experimental and the theoretical ask and bid prices. These areas are the precursors of the crisis mode in the form of dynamic chaos.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/