Проектирование систем на кристалле: риски и решения
System-on-a-chip (SoC) multicriteria design automated selection method based on the decision making theory is discussed in the article. Special attention is paid for SoC projects hierarchy criteria analysis solutions including Electro Magnetic Compatibility. The alternative design decision values calculation for SoCs using proposed technique is overviewed.
Purpose. When designing products electronic and computer technology (PECT) developer may need to select the microcontroller (MCU), for example, as the product control system. The problem of MCU choice is very difficult multi-criteria task with significant number of criteria and alternative MCU for comparison. One can obtain satisfactory results choosing intuitively based on own experience - but also can make a mistake. While the formal decision-making support methods steadily provide the most rational choice with conflicting selection criteria and a large number of alternatives.
Methods. It is suggested to divide the MCU selection task on several consecutive phases, gradually converging space selection, and to solve private multicriteria task based on the decision making methods application at each stage: method of rank , a group procedure of experts vote, method of analytical hierarchies . Each of these methods has strict algorithm that will automate the entire process of choice MCU under the terms of the draft.
Results. The report considers an example of MCU selection with the decision-making support methods application that systematically reduce MCU list and ultimately leads to the task solution.
Conclusion. The proposed approach allows you to bring the microcontroller selection procedure to sequence of the acceptable decision-making procedures. These procedures, as a rule, do not allow experts make errors and would avoid the expert’s prejudgment in decision-making. The methodology proposed for the MCU selection based on the formal procedures that enables you to automate the selection, taken in account many contradictory factors and the properties of a specific task that will allow getting ultimately more qualitative project decision.
Examines issues of decision-making in the design of complex highly specialized networks in which information exchange is performed between computers and various types of functional sensors. Presented the methodic of a choice of the basic network solution based on the consistent application of the methods of payment of the matrix and analytical hierarchies. This methodic allows to reduce time of designing of specialized networks, having in the telecommunication structure of a large number of functional sensors.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Event logs collected by modern information and technical systems usually contain enough data for automated process models discovery. A variety of algorithms was developed for process models discovery, conformance checking, log to model alignment, comparison of process models, etc., nevertheless a quick analysis of ad-hoc selected parts of a journal still have not get a full-fledged implementation. This paper describes an ROLAP-based method of multidimensional event logs storage for process mining. The result of the analysis of the journal is visualized as directed graph representing the union of all possible event sequences, ranked by their occurrence probability. Our implementation allows the analyst to discover process models for sublogs defined by ad-hoc selection of criteria and value of occurrence probability
The geographic information system (GIS) is based on the first and only Russian Imperial Census of 1897 and the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926. The GIS features vector data (shapefiles) of allprovinces of the two states. For the 1897 census, there is information about linguistic, religious, and social estate groups. The part based on the 1926 census features nationality. Both shapefiles include information on gender, rural and urban population. The GIS allows for producing any necessary maps for individual studies of the period which require the administrative boundaries and demographic information.
It is well-known that the class of sets that can be computed by polynomial size circuits is equal to the class of sets that are polynomial time reducible to a sparse set. It is widely believed, but unfortunately up to now unproven, that there are sets in EXPNP, or even in EXP that are not computable by polynomial size circuits and hence are not reducible to a sparse set. In this paper we study this question in a more restricted setting: what is the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible? It follows from earlier work of Lozano and Torán (in: Mathematical systems theory, 1991) that EXPNP does not have sparse selfreducible hard sets. We define a natural version of selfreduction, tree-selfreducibility, and show that NEXP does not have sparse tree-selfreducible hard sets. We also construct an oracle relative to which all of EXP is reducible to a sparse tree-selfreducible set. These lower bounds are corollaries of more general results about the computational complexity of sparse sets that are selfreducible, and can be interpreted as super-polynomial circuit lower bounds for NEXP.