Задачи стабилизации Бюджетного кодекса Российской Федерации
The author has analyzed transformation of norms of the Budget code of the Russian Federation, the frequency and size of its amendments, has revealed a problem of excess instability of its norms, which is connected with the period of intensive economic reforms and high economic dependence on global economic conditions. It considerably complicates the practice of application of the budgetary legislation, leads to a conflict and reduces the overall effectiveness of the Government of the Russian Federation activities. The obtained results have allowed the author to come to the conclusions concerning the causes of the current situation in the sphere of the budgetary legislation. The importance of the analysis gives the ongoing work on the preparation of a new version of the Budget code of the Russian Federation. Some suggestions of the author will allow the norms of the Budget code of the Russian Federation in the future to be more clear, systematic, predictable and stable.
The main objective of OECD project was the development of recommendations aimed at improving the use of economic and other instruments for management of water resources for ensuring sustainable development of water sector, as well as socio-economic development of the Republic of Buryatia as the whole. The project consisted of three stages that resulted in the devуlopment of specific relevant reports, included in the given series of works implemented on the commission of OECD.
Proposed recommendations rather relate to improvement of water policies while the aim of the series of projects was not the development of detailed methodologies or instructions on application of specific instruments, but identification of a main direction of policy in the field of water resource management. Such methodological guidence on application and improvement of various administrative and economic instruments would be developed later, after principal political decisions on the proposed measures are made.
Since 2008, the world economy has been facing consequences of the global financial crisis. One of them is rapid growth in public debt in most advanced economies, which resulted from an overoptimistic estimate of fiscal situation before the crisis, declining government revenue and increasing social expenditure during the crisis, costs of the banking system restructuring, countercyclical fiscal policies, etc.
For this reason, many governments are trying to determine a ‘safe’ level of fiscal deficit and public debt. However, this is not an easy task. There is no single standard of fiscal safety for all economies. Besides, a globalized economy and irregular business cycle make it difficult to find out in which phase of the cycle a given economy is at the moment, while this is essential to assess fiscal indicators.
Historical experience shows that default risk may materialize at different levels of public debt, sometimes seemingly very low. In fact, a ‘safe’ borrowing level is country-specific and depends on many factors and often unpredictable circumstances. However, given the tense situation in global markets, the ‘safe’ level of public debt is lower than it used to be a decade ago. Another argument for a cautious approach concerns a highly pro-cyclical nature of such measures as the fiscal deficit to GDP or public debt to GDP ratios.
Lessons of the latest crises also indicate importance of more accurate estimation of countries’ contingent fiscal liabilities, particularly of those relating to the stability in the financial sector. If looking into the future, a correct estimation of other contingent liabilities, particularly those related to social welfare systems (implicit debt of the public pension and health systems) are of primary importance in the context of the ageing society and population decline. These liabilities far exceed official statistics on the public debt in some counties. As a result, such statistics does not present an adequate picture of the nation's public debt and actual fiscal burden that will be imposed on the shoulders of the following generations of taxpayers.
This paper studies fiscal policy in Russia 2004–2010 with the aid of structural budget balance and fiscal impulse measures. To check for robustness several methods estimating the potential GDP are employed. The research suggests a hypothesis that the output in Russia is subject to two types of shocks: persistent outward shocks and short-term internal shocks. In 2004–2010, fiscal policy coped with the internal shocks but could not smooth outward instability. Fiscal policy in Russia is procyclical; it does not stabilize the output.
I argue that the rather unfavorable conclusions of the three papers in the session on "Coordination and Tradeoffs" might not be as bad as they seem. In particular, I dwell on challenges facing the central bank using an interest rate that is different from the risk-free rate in its Taylor rule, and show that proper redefinition of the intercept and the slope of the rule allows avoidance of inflationary bias and preserves the stability of equilibrium.
Chapter of the book examines the fiscal policy of Russia and, mainly, the creation of the Stabilization Fund as a mean to counter the negative effects of external macroeconomic conditions. The role of the Stabilization Fund in Russia in the early period of the crisis of 2008-09 was shown.
The objectives of this paper is to substantiate the idea that enforcement of the transparency principle is an major indicator of the state budgetary system quality, an indicator of a state real interest in transparency of the intergovernmental fiscal relations. Eventually enforcement of the transparency principle is an effective measure against tax evasion and charges and this will allow to supplement the federal budget not by raising existing taxes and fees or introducing new one, but by increasing the number of taxpayers. Study of this article is interesting not only to scholars specialized in the budget law but also to public officials involved in implementing fiscal policy of the Russian Federation.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/