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## On the coincidence of the factor and Gondran-Minoux rank functions of matrices over a semiring

We consider the rank functions of matrices over semirings, functions that generalize the classical notion of the rank of a matrix over a field. We study semirings over which the factor and Gondran–Minoux ranks of any matrix coincide. It is shown that every semiring satisfying that condition is a subsemiring of a field. We provide an example of an integral domain over which the factor and Gondran–Minoux ranks are different.

A network can be represented also with a corresponding matrix. Using matrix operations (addition and multiplication) over an appropriate semiring a unified approach to several network analysis problems can be developed. Matrix multiplication is about traveling on network.

We show that neither the Barvinok rank nor the Kapranov rank of a tropical matrix M can be defined in terms of the regular mixed subdivision produced by M. This answers a question asked by Develin, Santos and Sturmfels.

The two common concepts of singularity for matrices over semirings are being studied since the 1970’s and arise from natural generalizations of the determinant and linear dependence. They were introduced in the context of schedule algebras by Gondran and Minoux, who proved later that the concepts discussed are equivalent over any selective invertible semiring. We present an approach that uses a generalization of power series arithmetic and, in particular, allows to derive a short proof for the theorem of Gondran and Minoux. Our main result is a complete concise characterization of semirings over which the two concepts of singularity are equivalent.

We define and study the Hochschild (co)homology of the second kind (known also as the Borel-Moore Hochschild homology and the compactly supported Hochschild cohomology) for curved DG categories. An isomorphism between the Hochschild (co)homology of the second kind of a CDG-category B and the same of the DG category C of right CDG-modules over B, projective and finitely generated as graded B-modules, is constructed. Sufficient conditions for an isomorphism of the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology of a DG-category are formulated in terms of the two kinds of derived categories of DG-modules over it. In particular, a kind of “resolution of the diagonal” condition for the diagonal CDG-bimodule B over a CDG-category B guarantees an isomorphism of the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology of the corresponding DG-category C. Several classes of examples are discussed. In particular, we show that the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology are isomorphic for the DG-category of matrix factorizations of a regular function on a smooth affine variety over a perfect field provided that the function has no other critical values but zero.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.