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## The complexity of tropical matrix factorization

The tropical arithmetic operations on R are defined by a⊕b=min{a, b} and a⊗b=a+b. Let A be a tropical matrix and k a positive integer, the problem of Tropical Matrix Factorization (TMF) asks whether there exist tropical matrices B∈R^{m×k} and C∈R^{k×n} satisfying B⊗C=A. We show that no algorithm for TMF is likely to work in polynomial time for every fixed k, thus resolving a problem proposed by Barvinok in 1993.

This volume contains the proceedings of the International Workshop on Tropical and Idempotent Mathematics, held at the Independent University of Moscow, Russia, from August 26-31, 2012. The main purpose of the conference was to bring together and unite researchers and specialists in various areas of tropical and idempotent mathematics and applications. This volume contains articles on algebraic foundations of tropical mathematics as well as articles on applications of tropical mathematics in various fields as diverse as economics, electroenergetic networks, chemical reactions, representation theory, and foundations of classical thermodynamics. This volume is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in tropical and idempotent mathematics or in their applications in other areas of mathematics and in technical sciences

The notion of a boundary graph property was recently introduced as a relaxation of that of a minimal property and was applied to several problems of both algorithmic and combinatorial nature. In the present paper, we first survey recent results related to this notion and then apply it to two algorithmic graph problems: Hamiltonian cycle and Vertex k-colorability. In particular, we discover the first two boundary classes for the Hamiltonian cycle problem and prove that for any k > 3 there is a continuum of boundary classes for Vertex k-colorability.

We present an example of a 6x6 matrix A with tropical rank equal to 4 and Kapranov rank equal to 5. This disproves the conjecture formulated by M. Chan, A. Jensen, and E. Rubei.

The problem of quick detection of central nodes in large networks is studied. There are many measures that allow to evaluate a topological importance of nodes of the network. Unfortunately, most of them cannot be applied to large networks due to their high computational complexity. However, if we narrow the initial network and apply these centrality measures to the sparse network, it is possible that the obtained set of central nodes will be similar to the set of central nodes in large networks. If these sets are similar, the centrality measures with a high computational complexity can be used for central nodes detection in large networks. To check the idea, several random networks were generated and different techniques of network reduction were considered. We also adapted some rules from social choice theory for the key nodes detection. As a result, we show how the initial network should be narrowed in order to apply centrality measures with a high computational complexity and maintain the set of key nodes of a large network.

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium on Combinatorial Pattern Matching, CPM 2012, held in Helsinki, Finalnd, in July 2012. The 33 revised full papers presented together with 2 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 60 submissions. The papers address issues of searching and matching strings and more complicated patterns such as trees, regular expressions, graphs, point sets, and arrays. The goal is to derive non-trivial combinatorial properties of such structures and to exploit these properties in order to either achieve superior performance for the corresponding computational problems or pinpoint conditions under which searches cannot be performed efficiently. The meeting also deals with problems in computational biology, data compression and data mining, coding, information retrieval, natural language processing, and pattern recognition.

*When a society needs to take a collective decision one could apply some aggregation method, particularly, voting. One of the main problems with voting is manipulation. We say a voting rule is vulnerable to manipulation if there exists at least one voter who can achieve a better voting result by misrepresenting his or her preferences. The popular approach to comparing manipulability of voting rules is defining complexity class of the corresponding manipulation problem. This paper provides a survey into manipulation complexity literature considering variety of problems with different assumptions and restrictions.*

We define and study the Hochschild (co)homology of the second kind (known also as the Borel-Moore Hochschild homology and the compactly supported Hochschild cohomology) for curved DG categories. An isomorphism between the Hochschild (co)homology of the second kind of a CDG-category B and the same of the DG category C of right CDG-modules over B, projective and finitely generated as graded B-modules, is constructed. Sufficient conditions for an isomorphism of the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology of a DG-category are formulated in terms of the two kinds of derived categories of DG-modules over it. In particular, a kind of “resolution of the diagonal” condition for the diagonal CDG-bimodule B over a CDG-category B guarantees an isomorphism of the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology of the corresponding DG-category C. Several classes of examples are discussed. In particular, we show that the two kinds of Hochschild (co)homology are isomorphic for the DG-category of matrix factorizations of a regular function on a smooth affine variety over a perfect field provided that the function has no other critical values but zero.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.