Формирование инновационных кластеров в субъектах Российской Федерации
The state policy on stimulation of development innovative clusters at regional level is considered. By the analysis of experience of realisation кластерных initiatives in various regions, the basic directions of assistance to their development, public authorities and local government are established. The basic reference points of the state policy aimed at creation clusters are defined. The technique of identification innovative territorial clusters is proved.
The article describes clusters as a mechanism for economic growth and innovation in the region. The author considers the approach to the definition of a cluster as normative legal acts, and in the scientific literature, the advantages of cluster development are defined, and the cumulative effects of interaction between organizations within clusters are described. The information on the development institutions of clusters is presented on the example St. Petersburg.
Albeit being a trending topic in the world’s research literature, clusters have not been fully explored in the case of former planned economies with their specific peculiarities. In particular, there is little empirical research on Russian clusters. Therefore, the history of the formation and the conditions for the functioning of clusters in these countries have their own specific features. A study of Russian clusters allows us to compare their results with similar data for other countries, which indicate the presence of a positive effect for enterprises from working in a cluster, although not in all cases. The paper examines the effect of operating as part of a cluster for industrial enterprises in Russia. The main method of study is regression analysis of the production function with the binary variable ‘Cluster’. The targets of the study are industrial enterprises in 15 clusters in Russia that receive support from government programs. The reference group included businesses that are similar to those in the study group in terms of specialization and number of employees and are located in Russian regions with no clusters. Enterprises for the control group were selected according to the similarity of the type of economic activity and the size of the enterprise. In total, data were collected on the results of 368 enterprises, for the period from 2006 to 2015. Data was used as panel data.Financial and economic indicators for industrial enterprises were retrieved from the Ruslana database. Therefore, the results enable us to conclude, that in Russia in considered industrial sectors, in general, businesses, located in clusters, are more efficient, than ones outside clusters, but the degree of such efficiency is not high. These results do not completely correlate with foreign ones, where the researcher usually notes more pronounced effects.
The study verifies the compliance of sectorial specialization of Russian regions and the priorities of regional development presented in the form of cluster initiatives. The case of cluster policy shows that sectorial specialization of Russian regions, which was identified statistically, is often ignored when applying public support measures. The paper reports on the results of comparative analysis of the method for determining regions’ specialization industries used in the paper with the list of “economic specializations of Russian regions” mentioned in the “Strategy for the spatial development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2025”. The paper suggests recommendations that ensure the multi-level coordination of policymakers’ actions and concentration of resources on the justified priorities of regional development.
Within the conditions of the upward tendency in the level of competition between regions, it becomes critical to identify the most effective practices in the sphere of comprehensive territorial development through specialization on certain industries. One of the most widely occurred practices in the Russian Federation is the regional cluster development in tourism, which has been popularized since 2006–2007. The special features of domestic legislation and institutional context created a special Russian model of regional cluster policy in tourism. The results of such policy vary from region to region and differ from similar practice abroad. This necessitates the comprehensive analysis of the national model and the development of the recommendation system about its most effective application at the regional level. The general hypothesis of the research could be framed as follows: the Russian model has a system of internal limitations connected with the previous experience of public administration in the command economy. It limits a private initiative hampering the development of a tourism cluster. The basic data of the study includes a set of legislation governing cluster policy in Russian and abroad, as well as a set of publications, which let us reconstruct national models of tourism cluster in different countries. Within the research, we have conducted a comprehensive post evaluation and have identified a set of scientific schools, which formed modern national models. The second part of the research is devoted to the reconstruction of the national models of cluster policy in tourism based on the case-study method. The method allowed to describe the national models and helped us to classify them. The third part of the article describes the Russian model of cluster policy in tourism. On this stage, we have identified its strengths and weaknesses and suggested a system of recommendations aimed at the improvement of the national model at regional and federal levels. We have also developed certain recommendations on the most effective work with this system in the current conditions. Keywords: cluster policy, tourism cluster, tourism, tourism cluster theory, tourism cluster in Russia
Ces derniers temps, le nombre et la qualité des clusters ont pris une expansion visible en Russie. Avant l’adoption d’une politique de clusters au niveau fédéral, à la fi n de la décennie 2000, seules quelques régions avaient fait part de leur intention de contribuer au développement de ceux qui existaient sur leur territoire et dont peu marchaient vraiment. La situation, en outre, a radicalement changé au cours des dernières années.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.