Формирование инновационных кластеров в субъектах Российской Федерации
The state policy on stimulation of development innovative clusters at regional level is considered. By the analysis of experience of realisation кластерных initiatives in various regions, the basic directions of assistance to their development, public authorities and local government are established. The basic reference points of the state policy aimed at creation clusters are defined. The technique of identification innovative territorial clusters is proved.
Leading countries consider regional clusters as an efficient tool of interaction between actors of a region’s innovation system, which allows generating new poles of economic growth. There is a plenty of literature describing positive experience of clusters’ public support. In Russia, this process is still at an early stage. Russia’s strategy of innovative development until 2020 includes a program for supporting pilot innovative regional clusters. The aim is to make these clusters self-sustained.
Emergence and outlook of a cluster’s evolution are largely dependent on a range of basic conditions, such as: the urban environment; available critical mass of specialized companies; internal competition and openness to the outside world. There is always a risk that without government support the cluster will not be able to shift to the desired trajectory.
The paper presents a detailed overview of research devoted to the best practices of implementing state cluster policy. It provides a detailed analysis of the characteristic features of successful clusters, evaluates matching of Russia’s pilot innovative regional clusters to these criteria, as well as quantitative comparison between domestic and foreign clusters, suggests a model for sustainable cluster development.
The empirical base of the study is the development programmes of pilot innovative regional clusters, submitted to Ministry of Economic Development of Russia through 2012 in the framework of a special contest, as well as the results of the survey, commissioned by the JSC "Russian Venture Company" at the end of 2013.
The article describes clusters as a mechanism for economic growth and innovation in the region. The author considers the approach to the definition of a cluster as normative legal acts, and in the scientific literature, the advantages of cluster development are defined, and the cumulative effects of interaction between organizations within clusters are described. The information on the development institutions of clusters is presented on the example St. Petersburg.
The article reveals the concepts and the specific characteristics of the cluster policy, describes its generic problems inherent in the transition economies, including Russia. Authors describe possible directions of cluster policy realization in Russia. It is shown that many vital issues of the cluster policies implementation lie in its organization. Based on the example of the Scandinavian countries, that recognize the importance of the cluster approach, authors describe the organizational aspects of the implemented cluster programs. Authors define three types of cluster policy organizational structure and reveal the central role of the specialized agencies, whose analogues in Russia can be the regional centers of cluster development. Authors propose a typology of cluster policy organizationalstructuresthat differ in the number of involved ministries and specialized agencies, the types of relationship and object of regulation, functions and status of the authorized agencies. This typology is used to categorize the experience of cluster policy implementation in different countries. It is shown that under similar conditions the organization of cluster policy can take many forms and vary with time.
Ces derniers temps, le nombre et la qualité des clusters ont pris une expansion visible en Russie. Avant l’adoption d’une politique de clusters au niveau fédéral, à la fi n de la décennie 2000, seules quelques régions avaient fait part de leur intention de contribuer au développement de ceux qui existaient sur leur territoire et dont peu marchaient vraiment. La situation, en outre, a radicalement changé au cours des dernières années.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.