Философия математики в контексте преподавания истории и теории философии и математики, науки и гуманитарных знаний
The significance of the education in the field of philosophy of mathematics as the part of both philosohpy and mathematics at the universities is the subject of the article.
Traditions of mathematical education in Russia on both school and university level, research done by Russian scientists and its impact on the development of mathematics is considered by many a unique and valuable part of the world cultural heritage. In the present paper, we describe the development of mathematical education in Russian universities after 1955 — a period that proved to be most fruitful.
It is widely known that Soviet school of exact sciences, was among the strongest in the world, particularly in terms of physics and mathematics. Why? This is the question we would like to address in this paper by collecting and summarizing different viewpoints on this issue expressed by prominent mathematicians. Many of them witnessed the most fruitful period, the “golden years” of Soviet science and played a major role in the subsequent development of Soviet/Russian mathematics. There is little controversy in the explanations provided by different people; the only essential differences are in the emphases. Thus the list of factors may be regarded as precisely determined. This paper simply aims at communicating them to a non-mathematical community interested in issues of science and education.
The problems of values in philosophical education are considered.
In his reasoning concerning the relationship between surface or visible superficies (understood as the boundary or the limit of a body) and color (De sensu 439a19–b17), Aristotle asserts that the Pythagoreans called the surface (ἐπιφάνεια) color (χροιά), i.e. that they made no terminological difference between the former and the latter. In the scholarship on early Pythagoreans, this passage has been usually used as an indirect proof for the inaccuracy of attribution to the early Pythagoreans (1) of the abstract notion of surface (as found in Plato and Euclid), and thereby (2) of various forms of “derivation theory”. We argue that the colour-surface-limit doctrine has great significance for the understanding of the early Pythagorean concept of a number, since they articulated it, in various ways, precisely through the notion of a limit.
Math in Moscow (MiM) is the name of a short-term (1-2 semesters) study abroad program offered in English jointly by the Independent University of Moscow (IUM), National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), and Moscow Center for Continuous Mathematical Education (MCCME). It was first launched in spring 2001 by IUM. Along with courses in mathematics and computer science, students can study Russian language, Russian literature, history of mathematics and science, and history of Russia. All MiM courses are credited to the students at their home institutions.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.