Background. While the current literature provides valuable insight into how school climate perceptions and student motivation impact academic achievement, research examining the mediating effects of motivation in the linking of innovative educational system, school climate, and achievement is limited. The potential of the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education as a basis for educational innovation is considered in this study. With respect to academic motivation, self-determination theory is applied as a useful theoretical framework that allows for the consideration of both the intensity and the quality of motivation.
Objective. The study examines a model that illustrates the role of autonomous and external types of academic motivation in linking the El’konin-Davydov system of developmental education and school climate to the academic achievement of elementary schoolchildren.
Design. A cross-sectional design was implemented in the current study. Participants were 345 third and fourth graders drawn from four regular schools located in Moscow, with some (N=192) educated in the traditional system and others (N=153) in an innovative one.
Results. The results of structural equation modeling showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well, supporting the hypothesis that student external motivation plays a mediating role in linking educational system (innovative vs traditional) with academic achievement. Additionally, results indicated that students’ autonomous motivation plays a mediating role in linking positive perceptions of school climate with academic achievement.
Conclusion. These results highlight that the developmental education approach compared to the so called traditional system of education provides better instructional quality, promoting decreased external motivation as well as a better attitude towards school and study, which in turn is associated with higher academic achievement.
In this paper, we developed a psychological model of digital competence including four components (knowledge, skills, motivation and responsibility) and four spheres (work with online content, communication, technical activity and consumption). The Digital Competence Index (DCI) is a 52-item instrument assessing an index and an entire profile of digital competence. In the Russian population study (1203 adolescents 12-17 years old and 1209 parents), acceptable reliability (.72-.90 for all of the scales, except motivation) of DCI was demonstrated. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the superiority of the four-component structure with the second-order index. Mean DCI was 34% of the maximally possible level in adolescents and 31% in parents, indicating the necessity for the educational programs in Russia. The motivation component was both the lowest and the least homogeneous factor, indicating that important special efforts to improve motivation to learn in Russian adolescents are needed.
Multiculturalism is an increasingly common characteristic of contemporary societies. In culturally diverse social contexts, virtually every person experiences intercultural contact on a daily basis. It is essential to understand that there must be both cultural diversity and equity in social participation for true multiculturalism to exist in these settings. Beyond its core definition, it is clear that multiculturalism is a complex concept encompassing many dimensions and meanings. First, the term is understood to describe a demographic fact, indicating the existence of cultural diversity in a society. Second, multiculturalism refers to the policies and programs that are in place to manage intercultural relations and acculturation. Third, multiculturalism refers to psychological phenomena, including individual attitudes and ideologies that accept or reject the demographic, civic and policy features of multiculturalism. This chapter considers Canadian multiculturalism policy, examining how the multiple meanings of multiculturalism vary around the world. Within this framework, I highlight the psychological processes and outcomes of multiculturalism, particularly in connection with acculturation, adaptation and intercultural relations and consider whether these processes and outcomes differ for dominant and non-dominant groups. I suggest some ways in which to enhance the positive outcomes of intercultural contact and the resultant acculturation outcomes. Finally, this chapter sets the stage for the presentation of the other chapters in this volume. It elaborates three hypotheses derived from Canadian multiculturalism policy: the multiculturalism, integration and contact hypotheses.
This article examines intercultural relations in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). The research is based on the theory of acculturation of J. Berry and uses the hypotheses and measures developed in the Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies project. The RNO-A is the most favorable place for Russians living in the North Caucasus because attitudes toward the Russian minority in the RNO-A are not discriminatory. Our goal was to test three hypotheses in the RNO-A: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We conducted a sociopsychological survey. The sample included members of the ethnic majority, the Ossetians (N= 318), and members of the ethnic minority, the Russians (N= 327). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic minority and for the ethnic majority, and the models were compared with each other. The results show that perceived security among the Russians (the ethnic minority) as well as among the Ossetians (the ethnic majority) promoted support for a multicultural ideology, tolerance, and mutual integration. The number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had a positive and significant impact on a preference for integration among both the Ossetians and the Russians. An integration strategy and the expectation of integration promoted life satisfaction in both groups. Because the results of the study confirmed all three hypotheses, we conclude that interethnic relations between the Russians and the Ossetians in the RNO-A are based on the principles of multiculturalism.
In this paper, the features of the social relationship systems are analyzed basing on the materials of the socio-psychological empirical study conducted at two stages (from 2002 to 2014). The empirical data obtained in 2002 comprised 417 participants of different ages from Nizhny Novgorod region provincial towns. The elderly respondents have lived almost all their lives under the Soviet regime; the middle-aged respondents got their education and started careers in the USSR. The main objective of the research was to synthesize the individual systems of social relations, the personal notions of power in particular, to compare the finding between the Soviet and the post-Soviet samples, and to make sense of the discovered differences. Empirical data was obtained with the help of Kelly’s Repertory grid technique designed with the purpose to retrieve the interviewee’s personal ideas about the surrounding world and people without imposing any existing conceptions of social reality. Pertovsky’s three-factor interpersonal relationships model and the concept of the "closed society" make the ground for the theoretical hypothesis we are trying to test. The results for the respondents of different ages, and correspondingly, with different experiences of living in the USSR, are analyzed in terms of the features typical of the closed group. Both the closed societies and the closed groups are characterized by the rigid hierarchical social structure and depersonalization of the social relations and thus the Soviet society can be regarded as closed due to its authoritarian and collectivist nature. We argue that the members of the closed groups and the citizens of the closed society have similar social relationships matrixes and reveal the ways in which the post-Soviet society derived some of its attributes from the "closed society" of the former USSR. Both samples demonstrate the rejection and the mistrust of the powerful, influential figures, however the gradual changes in the understanding of social structure is underway.