История начинается с борьбы за признание, в результате которой появляются фигуры ("гештальты") Господина и Раба; завершается история универсальным и гомогенным государством, Империей. Центральной точкой в этой истории является Революция с её неизбежным террором. Сам Кожев пережил Русскую революцию и Гражданскую войну; в 1920 году он уехал из России в Германию, где до конца 1923 года наблюдал то же противостояние "левых" и "правых". Этот опыт явился основой его взгляда на историю, его интерпретации эволюции от Господства и Рабства к фигуре Гражданина, ко всеобщему признанию. Французская революция с террором якобинцев и империей Наполеона представляет, с его точки зрения, модель, позволяющую понять не только революции ХХ века, но и весь ход истории.
The article reconstructs an original concept of myth developed by Mikhail Lifshits. He invented the term ‘‘logomythia’’, as the ‘‘art of discrimination’’, to show the ambivalent nature of creative work, where archaic myth dies as a historical nonsense and resurrects as a human meaning. Logomythia demonstrates the overcoming of the irrational element in the life of societies by linking it to the rational or meaningful content of artistic images. And, on the other hand, the concept contains more than a hint of the crisis of rationalism in the twentieth century which destroyed the harmony of man with nature.
Реплика в дискуссии о современном состоянии философии в России по сравнению с Советским Союзом.
The article offers an analysis of party cadres’ conceptualization of culture that provided the basis for the creation of the state monopoly on cultural production of the young Soviet regime in the early 1920’s.
During the First World War the radical nationalist sentiments were widespread in different European countries involved in military activities, including the Russian Empire. In Russia this rise united the features of Russian ethnonationalism and imperial enthusiasm. The Russian philosopher Vladimir Ern (1882–1917) in his article “From Kant to Krupp” (1914) attempted “to ground” the hostility between Russia and its allies, on the one hand, and Germany, on the other hand. This attempt turned Ern’s article into one of the earliest manifestoes of cultural racism in Russia, maybe the very first one. Discussing this article in the context of other works by Ern of 1910–1917, one can see that Ern applied Friedrich Nietzsche’s genealogical method for the political interpretation of “the problem of technology” causing the aggressive approach to the human’s environment. Nevertheless, Ern’s cultural racism and aggressive rhetoric blocked further development and even reception of his methodological innovations. The psychological compensatory pragmatic of his rhetoric seems to resemble the analogical function of rigid opposition between “Russia” and “West” in speeches of contemporary Russia’s official ideologues.
Viktor Shklovskij, the famous Russian literary theorist, and the founder of Russian Formalist School, published his first books in 1914, when World War I had just started. One of them consisted of the futuristic essay, Resurrection of the Word, first presented in December, 1913, and devoted to the problem of the death and resurrection of literature through the use of transrational language (in Russian ZAUM, i. e. beyond, or trans-sense). Another book, entitled The Saturnine Fate, concerned archaic prose poetry devoted to the war that had just begun. Sˇklovskij borrows an official military rhetoric and changes its accents, turning it into an instrument of pacifism. It should be stressed that 1914 was the same year the new Formalist theory started growing, reaching a first intellectual peak in 1916 when the key Shklovskij essay, Art as Device, was published. At the same time, Shklovskij had been drafted into the army, and war became a fruitful background for this emerging theory. Sˇklovskij first served as an instructor in the armored car division; following the February 1917 bourgeois revolution he was actively involved in agitation for the Provisional Government as a commissar, first on the Western front, then later on the Southern front. After the Russian bourgeois revolution of 1917 Shklovskij began writing memoirs long before he reached old age, based on his own conception of the genre. A war depicted in a book with the intertextual title Sentimental Journey is reconstructed here as a mechanism paralleled principally with the automobile; a means of transport to be handled with care. In the first part of the book, the war is seen as having a specific order of things, as opposed to a revolution which follows more the path of chaos. However, throughout his journey, Shklovskij observes the logic of events and concludes that the processes of war and revolution do not stand opposed, but instead have a consequential relationship.