The paper studies a big city as an independent central place system. For this purpose, the author has developed and tested a methodology for quantitative assessment of central functions based on an inte- grated set of the most important socioeconomic indicators. This methodology helped to prove the possibility of not only measuring the value of central functions in different parts of a big city, but also of determining the affiliation of all the system’s elements with different hierarchical levels or a service area. The study was based on the model of Moscow’s central place system. The study evaluated how the factor of the Russian capital’s considerable territorial expansion has influenced the dynamics of its central place system from 2009 to 2015. We have found that there is a strong interrelation between Moscow’s radial–circular structure and a relatively uniform reduction in the value of central functions with increasing distance from the city center, which is dis- turbed by the largest highways, which concentrate a significantly higher value of the key factor compared with neighboring elements.
The paper analyzes the factors and trends of the Russian crises of 1990–2010 and their impact on the economic development of regions, the labor market and personal income, and the state of regional budgets. It considers the factors and dynamics of the crisis of 2014–2015 and its difference from previous ones: the conditionality by internal barriers of development with the subsequent influence of external factors, the slower downturn in industry, and the retention of relative stability on the labor market. The main crisis-related problems for regions are revealed: destabilization of their budgets since 2013, the drop in personal income and the advance drop in consumption, and the extended reduction in investments. Differences in crisis-related trends are shown for regions with different economies and geographical positions. The study analyzes the risks and forms of crisis adaptation of the populations of the largest cities with predominance of the service sector in the employment structure, the smaller industrial cities, and the rural periphery. State policy measures to stabilize regional budgets, support industry and regional labor markets in crisis periods are considered.
В данной статье моделируется внутренняя миграция в России и выявляются основ- ные движущие ее факторы. На основании официальных данных Росстата за период с 1999 по 2010 год оценивается модель факторов миграции на панельных данных российских регионов. В качестве факторов миграции рассматриваются демографические факторы, показатели рынка труда, жилья, качества жизни, предоставление общественных благ, инфраструктура, а также расходы консолидированных бюджетов регионов на различные нужды. Получено, что чувствительность миграции выше к демографическим и экономическим факторам (обеспеченность жильем и среднедушевые доходы), нежели различным социальным и иным факторам. Среди расходов региональных бюджетов наибольшее влияние на миграцию оказывают расходы на образование и здравоохранение в регионах.
The possibility of determining the branch competitiveness of regions using the shift-share analysis is considered. It allows for the revealing of the formation factors of competitiveness and evaluating their effects in terms of three directions: effect of changes in the national economy, regional development stimuli, and internal efficiency factor of a particular branch in the region. A comparative analysis is carried out, where the Central Federal District of Russia in 2005–2009 serves as an example. Graphical analysis on the basis of three parameters, namely, GRP, number of employed in the economy, and labor productivity, made it possible to decompose the branch shift of regional economies into the following components: DIF effect (contribution of a branch’s internal efficiency), MIX effect (effect of the structure of the regional economy), and the effect of national development factors. The detection of branches capable of being growth drivers for the region will make it possible for regional efficiency management entities to purposefully create favorable conditions and stimuli for the balanced development of the region.
The problems of formation of organizational and economic mechanisms necessary to strengthen the position of Siberia in the economic space of the country were reviewed. The proposals refer to the reformation of the state regional policy and modernization of the regional strategic planning, provision of the implementation of the “Strategy of Socioeconomic Development of Siberia” and breakthroughs innovations in Siberian regions, and economic mechanisms of production development in this macroregion. A special emphasis is placed on measures for the fundamental modernization of Siberia’s mineral resource complex.
The article covers geographical and technological factors which determine the location and development of Russia’s timber industry in the market environment. Trends in the spatial pattern of Russian timber and pulp-and-paper exports in 2000–2010 are analyzed. The production pattern of timber and pulp-and-paper products is analyzed for Russia’s largest interregional timber industry manufacturers. The post-Soviet shifts in the geographies of timber resources and the relevant demand are evaluated. Synthesis of three sets of factors helps formulate a long-term forecast of the future spatial shifts in the location of the timber industry’s production facilities. Development centers are expected in regions adjacent to Irkutsk oblast that have a common border with China—the largest importer of Russian timber and pulp-and-paper products-and combine significant timber resources with a relatively dense population and infrastructure.
From 1991 to 2019, the economy of Uzbekistan passed through the four stages. Each stage was characterized by certain demographic, economic, political, and other factors. These factors influence the formation of foreign labor migration at the macrolevel. The mentioned stages reflect (i) the transition from a planned to a market economy against the background of an increase in migration outflow for permanent residence in 1990–2000, (ii) acceleration of economic growth in 2000–2009 and the formation of “migrant networks” abroad, (iii) a period of slowdown in GDP growth in the absence of structural reforms to stimulate employment and investment in 2010–2015, which contributed to the active growth of labor migration, and (iv) a stage of new socioeconomic reforms and increased attention of the leadership of Uzbekistan to migration processes. This study takes into account these macroeconomic conditions, but focus is shifted to the reasons for the change in migration processes in terms of poorly understood sociocultural factors that affect foreign labor migration and reintegration of labor migrants in Uzbekistan. The article is based on reports from specialized studies of foreign labor migration and employment conducted by the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations of Uzbekistan, publications of studies by international organizations, and data from in-depth interviews with migrants and their families. The research revealed that under the influence of macroeconomic conditions, the change in the sociocultural context in 2006–2019 contributed to expansion of the geography of migration flows from Uzbekistan, the emergence of such phenomena as the “feminization” of migration and its “rejuvenation” against the background of certain elements of egalitarianism in an initially patriarchal society. Studying the sociocultural context made it possible to assess the degree of “success” of migration, in terms of remigration and the ability of migrants to reintegrate into society upon returning home. It has been determined that the microcommunity in Uzbekistan, as a donor country of labor resources, has both stimulating and constraining effects on the transformation of migration processes.