Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct a system of indicators that will allow firms to evaluate the long-term results of their marketing activities along the value chain. Design/methodology/approach: The paper integrates the concepts of network relationships, value chain management, and customer lifetime value (CLV). The authors use participative inquiry and case studies to validate and clarify the model. Findings: The authors develop the customer flow conceptual model and propose a sequence of actions to translate it into measures and indicators that will allow firms to understand their role in the creation of sustainable value. Using this model, the authors conduct comparative analyses of the acquisition and retention strategies of a multinational firm in the European and Russian markets. The results provide a crucial justification for new directions in future long-term marketing activities. Research limitations/implications: The model is validated in two cases in different industries. Further research is required to examine the implementation of suggested tools in different industries. Practical implications: The model was simplified for a practical application and indicators for future monitoring process and customer flow management were developed. Originality/value: The authors developed the concept of customer flow to assess the long-term results of marketing activities and to emphasize the difference between managing new and existing customers. New performance metrics are proposed based on customer flow and its structural characteristics. This allowed comparing of acquisition and retention strategies of the same company in different markets and reveals the crucial differences between the marketing strategies prevailing in Russia and those in Europe. The authors have demonstrated how the concept may help firms to develop and implement successful strategies.
The purpose of this paper is to extend existing theories of b2b networks over non-proft networks. The paper sheds light on the network organisational forms recently implanted in the academic community. The analytic induction method is used to extend b2b network concepts to a non-profit context. The concepts of b2b networks are critically analysed and applied to explorative case studies of networks in academia. The paradox of open knowledge exchange in these networks is revealed and an attempt is made to elucidate it. B2b network concepts should be modifed before being extended to non-profits. Propositions are suggested to adapt b2b network concepts to explain non-profit networks. Questions to address in further research are developed. The main conclusions are only applicable to speciec types of networks. Only academic networks are reviewed. The case study approach does not allow for generalizing the findings and deriving a set of concepts for non-profit networks, and thus, calls for further research. There may be space for achieving excellence in research by facilitating interpersonal rather than interorganisational research networks. This is important, since by facilitating interpersonal networks one can escape from organisational bureaucracy. The study reports networking between the non-profits, an issue largely neglected by marketing researchers, and contributes to its understanding in the frame of existing b2b network concepts.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine new rules of exchange in retailer-supplier relationships imposed by the retail chains, to analyse factors facilitating this institutional change and to reveal the links between channel power and relational conflicts. Design/methodology/approach: Survey data were collected from 500 managers of retail chains and their suppliers in five Russian cities. The sample includes firms of different sizes that sell food and home electronic appliances. After the diffusion of new contract arrangements is examined, logistic regression models are constructed to evaluate major sources of relational conflicts. Findings: The findings indicate that power-advantaged firms disseminate new rules of exchange effectively. However, relational conflicts largely originate not from these new demands but from the frequent contract infringements by both exchange parties. Research limitations/implications: The study is confined to two sectors of retail trade in one country. Further research is required to determine the effects on channel relationships of the financial crisis and of the adoption of restrictive federal legislation. Practical implications: Practitioners should recognise the need to provide socio-political legitimacy for the new rules of exchange. Otherwise, they may face relational conflicts and provoke restrictive state regulations. Public officials should know that relational conflicts may originate largely from opportunistic behaviour by exchange parties rather than from abuse of market power. Originality/value: This paper presents the first systematic quantitative study of retailer-supplier relationships in Russia. It investigates institutional change and relational conflicts as perceived by both exchange parties.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop and test models explaining the unsatisfactory innovation activity of Russian firms and the main obstacles to innovation cluster development. Design/methodology/approach: Based on statistical analysis and the results of a pilot survey of 192 local businessmen, followed by imitation modeling analysis, the study tests hypotheses regarding the impact of unsatisfactory institutional environments, including weak property rights protection, on innovation cluster development in Russia. Findings: The analysis shows that the impact of adverse factors on innovation activities of cluster members is crucial, and estimates to what extent the negative factors' influence should be reduced to prevent cluster degradation processes. Research limitations/implications: The models provide a number of sensitivity tests of the parameters; however, data from clusters with different levels of support and protection need to be obtained. Government experiments could be conducted to test the models and find ranges of optimal parameters for cluster development. Short of this, examination of actual data from different cluster in similar environments would allow estimated of optimal strategies for support. Longitudinal data can also help determine the actual cause and effect of successful innovation cluster development. Practical implications: The paper provides managerial implications for organizations involved in innovation clusters, which can be used to improve cluster members' performance and collaborative innovation activities by means of creating acceptable institutional environments. Originality/value: The paper provides evidence of the connection between collaborative activities of clustering organizations in Russia and their performance caused by expectations concerning institutional conditions on the macro level in Russia.