The process of rogue wave formation on deep water is considered. A wave of extreme amplitude is born against the background of uniform waves (Gerstner waves) under the action of external pressure on free surface. The pressure distribution has a form of a quasi-stationary “pit”. The fluid motion is supposed to be a vortex one and is described by an exact solution of equations of 2D hydrodynamics for an ideal fluid in Lagrangian coordinates. Liquid particles are moving around circumferences of different radii in the absence of drift flow. Values of amplitude and wave steepness optimal for rogue wave formation are found numerically. The influence of vorticity distribution and pressure drop on parameters of the fluid is investigated.
Compactons are studied in the framework of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation with the sublinear nonlinearity. Compactons represent localized bell-shaped waves of either polarity which propagate to the same direction as waves of the linear KdV equation. Their amplitude and width are inverse proportional to their speed. The energetic stability of compactons with respect to symmetric compact perturbations with the same support is proven analytically. Dynamics of compactons is studied numerically, including evolution of pulse-like disturbances and interactions of compactons of the same or opposite polarities. Compactons interact inelastically, though almost restore their shapes after collisions. Compactons play a two-fold role of the long-living soliton-like structures and of the small-scale waves which spread the wave energy.
The dynamics of two-component solitons is studied, analytically and numerically, in the framework of a system of coupled extended nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which incorporate the cross-phase modulation, pseudo-stimulated-Raman-scattering (pseudo-SRS), cross-pseudo-SRS, and spatially inhomogeneous second-order dispersion (SOD). The system models co-propagation of electromagnetic waves with orthogonal polarizations in plasmas. It is shown that the soliton's wavenumber downshift, caused by pseudo-SRS, may be compensated by an upshift, induced by the inhomogeneous SOD, to produce stable stationary two-component solitons. The corresponding approximate analytical solutions for stable solitons are found. Analytical results are well confirmed by their numerical counterparts. Further, the evolution of inputs composed of spatially even and odd components is investigated by means of systematic simulations, which reveal three different outcomes: formation of a breather which keeps opposite parities of the components; splitting into a pair of separating vector solitons; and spreading of the weak odd component into a small-amplitude pedestal with an embedded dark soliton.