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Of all publications in the section: 108
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Working paper
Polyachenko S. S., Nye J. V., Bruhanov M. Economics/EC. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 78/EC/2014.
Using a large sample drawn from families in the Moscow and Moscow region which are part of the Russian RMLS longitudinal survey we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and a variety of life outcome measures, even with the inclusion of multiple controls. Contributing to existing empirical findings, we found statistically significant empirical associations of 2D:4D with higher educational attainment, occupational outcomes, knowledge of foreign language, smoking, engaging in sport activities and with some aspects of respondent's self-esteem. In general, the character of detected empirical associations are different for women and men, as it was documented in our previous studies.
Added: Dec 12, 2014
Working paper
Nye J. V., Androushchak G., Desierto D. et al. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2011. No. 01.
Exposure to prenatal androgens affects both future behavior and life choices. However, there is still relatively limited evidence on its effects on academic performance. Moreover, the predicted effect of exposure to prenatal testosterone (T) - which is inversely correlated with the relative length of the second to fourth finger lengths (2D:4D) - would seem to have ambiguous effects on academic achievement since traits like confidence, aggressiveness, or risk-taking are not uniformly positive for success in school. We provide the first evidence of a non-linear relationship between 2D:4D and academic achievement using samples from Moscow and Manila. We find that there is a quadratic relationship between high T exposure and markers of achievement such as grades or test scores and that the optimum digit ratio for women in our sample is lower (indicating higher prenatal T) than the average. The results for men are generally insignificant for Moscow but significant for Manila showing similar non-linear effects. Our work is thus unusual in that it draws from a large sample of nearly a thousand university students in Moscow and over a hundred from Manila for whom we also have extensive information on high school test scores, family background and other potential correlates of achievement. Our work is also the first to have a large cross country comparison that includes two groups with very different ethnic compositions.
Added: Aug 28, 2012
Working paper
Olga Gorelova, Lovakov A. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. WP BRP 32/EDU/2016.
The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity, measured in the quantity and quality of publications, while others show the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in studies of different countries and within countries. Such a variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty members. The results, using Russian data from the Changing Academic Profession survey, showed no substantial effect of academic inbreeding on research productivity. Inbred and non-inbred faculty members do not differ substantially in terms of the probability of having publications, or how many, although for inbreds such probability is slightly higher. These results are robust for different operationalizations of inbreeding and measures of publication activity. However the absence of significant differences in the number of publications may not mean the absence of a difference in their quality. The possible explanations and limitations of the standard measures of research productivity are discussed.
Added: May 10, 2016
Working paper
Skorobogatov A. Высшая школа экономики, 2012

The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.

Added: Oct 8, 2012
Working paper
Lovakov A. Psychology. PSY. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. WP BRP 30/PSY/2014.
The aim of this study is to examine the specific antecedents and consequences of the commitment of university teachers to their university. Academia has specific features that distinguish universities from other types of organizations: universities have the opportunity to hire their own graduates (academic inbreeding); university teachers are able to work in several higher education institutions or combine teaching with work in business; university teachers have the opportunity to combine several professional roles (teaching, administrative work, research, etc.); university teachers have several options to change their job; publication activity is an important indicator of the efficiency and competitiveness of university teachers. This study is an online survey of 317 teachers of different disciplines from several types of state higher education institutions from different regions of Russia. The results of the regression analysis show that antecedents of affective commitment include belonging to a group of insiders (working in university from which they graduated), having an additional administrative position, role clarity, and role conflict. Structural equation modelling shows that an additional administrative position had a direct positive effect and an indirect negative effect (through role conflict) on the affective commitment to the university. Having work experience at another university predicts only a normative commitment to the university. The affective component of commitment to the university was a better negative predictor of the intention to leave the position, profession and institution. No components of the commitment predict publication activity.
Added: Jan 20, 2015
Working paper
Orel E., Kochergina E. V., Nye J. V. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2013
  We study which Big Five personality traits are associated with academic performance among a sample of Russian university students using results from the Unified State Examination (for university admissions) and their current grade point averages as measures of academic performance. We find that Introversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, and Openness to experience have observable ties to academic performance. Those results partially confirm existing international studies, but our findings are notable for the relative unimportance of  conscientiousness for success in our Russian sample. We suggest that cross-cultural differences  in educational environment may explain why this trait seems less obviously important in the analysis.
Added: May 20, 2013
Working paper
Kuzmina Y. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2016
Researchers have postulated that there is a positive effect of autonomy-supportive teacher practices on academic interest. Few studies, however, investigate how these practices can reduce the gender gap in mathematics interest. The goal of our study is to examine how autonomy-supportive practices effect on attitudes toward mathematics for girls and boys with different level of mathematics achievements. We used data from the Russian longitudinal study “Trajectories in Education and Career” (TrEC) to identify teacher practices which can reduce the gender gap in mathematics interest. Using hierarchical linear regression analysis we focused on two types of teacher practices: autonomysupportive and controlling. We conducted analysis for boys and girls separately and evaluated how the effect of teacher practices on mathematics interest varies for boys and girls in general and according to their level of mathematics achievements. Our analysis demonstrates that girls are more sensitive to different teacher practices and some autonomy-supportive practices have a positive effect on mathematics interest for girls only and no effect on boys’ interest. We also identified that some teacher practices have different effects on students’ interest according to the level of their prior achievements. Autonomy-supportive practices are more important for students with high achievements.
Added: Sep 16, 2016
Working paper
Yanbarisova D. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
This paper analyses the influence of different combinations of work and study on academic achievement among university students of Yaroslavl region in Russia. The data was collected during the first wave of longitudinal research on the educational and occupational trajectories of graduates of schools and universities conducted by the Institute of Education, Higher School of Economics, Moscow in 2009. The sample consists of 1474 4th and 5th year university students. Five work-study types are defined on the basis of two variables: work schedule and work relatedness to specialty: full-time work outside the specialty field, part-time work outside the specialty field; full-time work in the specialty field, part-time work in the specialty field; and not working during university studies. The results show that working outside the specialty field (full-time or part-time) has a negative impact on academic achievement, whereas the other work-study types do not have any significant effect. The results partly support our hypothesis that different work-study combinations influence academic achievement in different ways and that job relatedness to the academic specialty is a significant characteristic in defining the influence. The paper contributes to the research field of studying attributes of student employment which are responsible for different effects on academic achievement
Added: Dec 9, 2014
Working paper
Yastrebov G., Bessudnov A., Pinskaya М. et al. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 55.
This study focuses on how social contexts promote disparities in academic performance between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school’s average Unified State Examination (USE) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, its material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body and the school’s material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, the limitations of current research and suggest several possibilities for its empirical development.
Added: Dec 3, 2014
Working paper
Fedyukin I., Gabdrakhmanov S. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2014
This study employs a unique database covering 2,293 cadets who graduated from the Noble Land Cadet Corps in St Petersburg from 1732 – 1762 to investigate the role of cultural capital in early modern Russia. Our analysis suggests that within this sample cultural capital was negatively correlated with wealth, but positively with father’s rank within the state service. At the corps itself, wealth and social status of families did not directly affect the success of their sons. The only significant factor of success at this school (promotion to a particular rank at graduation) was the family’s access to “Western” education and cultural skills. The results indicate the state was able to create an institutional framework where the possession of new “imported” knowledge and social skills gave the holder a measurable advantage over his peers. This could be considered one of the mechanisms which contributed to the sustainability of the cultural and social regime created by Peter I.
Added: Aug 20, 2014
Working paper
Valeria Ivaniushina, Alexandrov D. A. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2013. No. 09.
This article analyzes student pro-school/anti-school attitudes on different levels and explores their relation to educational outcomes. We examine the individual level, school level, and clique level predictors (clique is defined as a tight social group within a class social network). Cliques were identified using special software called Kliquefinder. We use multi-level regression approach on a sample of 7300 students from 104 public schools from St.Petersburg. Our findings show that: 1.) Socio-economic differentiation of Russian schools does not lead to a polarization of pro-school/anti-school attitudes in different types of schools; 2.) The polarization of attitudes emerges and is maintained at the clique level; and, 3.) Clique attitudes have a significant impact on educational outcomes (net of a student’s socio-demographic characteristics and individual attitudes).
Added: Feb 28, 2013
Working paper
Kuzmina Y., Ivanova A., Antipkina I. PSYCHOLOGY. WP BRP. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2017
The main aim of this study was to estimate direct and indirect effects of phonological ability and vocabulary knowledge on subsequent mathematics and reading performance. To achieve our goals we used two-wave longitudinal data from the international Performance Indicators in Primary Schools (iPIPS) data set, which was produced in Russia in 2015-2016. We used rhyming skills and ability to repeat words/pseudowords as indicators of phonological ability, and identified three types of mathematical skills (digit identification, number manipulations and formal math). The results of our analysis confirmed the predictive role of preschool phonological ability as a domain-general precursor of later achievements. Phonological ability had a positive direct and indirect effects on the subsequent reading and math performance. Moreover, the direct effect was higher than the indirect effect. Reading fluency mediated the effect of phonological ability and did not mediate the effect of vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary knowledge had insignificant direct effect on math achievement and positive indirect effect via phonological ability.
Added: Aug 28, 2017
Working paper
Ivaniushina V. A., Alexandrov D. A. Sociology. SOC. Высшая школа экономики, 2014. No. 43.
In this study we focus on the influence of peers on adolescents academic achievement. Specifically, how the learning motivation of peers is related to a student's school grades. We use multilevel regression to analyze the influence of peers on different levels of social circles: school, class, personal network, and compare the effects of "assigned friends" and "chosen friends". The methods of social network analysis are used to define the personal network of a student in different ways: cliques, complete ego networks, and mutual ego networks. We demonstrate that the model improves considerably when the level of personal networks is included between individual and class levels. The learning motivation of a student's friends (defined as a clique or ego network) has an important influence on the student’s school performance, net of student’s personal characteristics.
Added: Jun 3, 2014
Working paper
Tyumeneva Y. A. Policy Research Working Paper. WPS. World Bank Group, 2013. No. 10.
This case study examines how the Russian Federation disseminates and uses information from its student assessment system, drawing lessons for other countries seeking to more effectively use their  own  assessment data. Russia’s Unified State Examination (USE) is primarily used for student selection and certification purposes, but a variety of other uses have been attached to  it, including informing  pedagogy, ensuring accountability, and monitoring education quality. This variety of uses has had both positive and negative consequences for the school system. Information from international large-scale assessments (e.g.,  PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS)1 has been widely used to introduce reforms in the school system. Factors that have affected the differential use of USE and international large-scale assessment data include, among others, the purpose of a given assessment, its design features and level of credibility, and access to the assessment database.  
Added: Sep 17, 2013
Working paper
Vishlenkova E. A. Humanities. HUM. Basic Research Programme, 2013. No. 29.
  This article is a reconstruction of archival policies pursued by Russian universities in the nineteenth century and their effects. By comparing ‘old’ and ‘new’ archive inventories, archivists’ records and ministerial instructions, Elena Vishlenkova detects sets of documents that were destroyed in the ministerial and university archives. Furthermore, the author explains the logic of keeping certain types of documents and assigning them specific addresses within the archives. The study explains the contradictions that exist in the source evidence as well as in researchers’ conclusions, and presents hitherto unknown aspects of the university culture in the Russian Empire.
Added: May 15, 2013
Working paper
Leshukov O., Platonova D., Semyonov D. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. WP BRP 29/EDU/2015 .
The paper explores the relation between the degree of competition between higher education institutions (HEIs) and efficiency of regional higher education systems taking the evidence from the Russian Federation. The choice of regional system of higher education as a unit of analysis explained by features of the Russian system of higher education, especially by “closeness” in borders of regions. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) we investigate the efficiency of higher education systems in the regions and juxtapose the results with the extent of higher education competition within them. The analysis finds that within the overall sample the correlation is positive, but not striking. Yet, the extent of competition is connected with the efficiency of the regional sets of HEIs more in the regions that are less developed socio-economically. 
Added: Oct 19, 2015
Working paper
Natalya V. Isaeva, Nadezhda V. Bycik, Rustam F. Bayburin et al. Management. MAN. Высшая школа экономики, 2015
  This article discusses the results of a pilot study carried out in 2013-14. within the framework of an international comparative research «Asia Leadership Project». The article, based on an analysis of data of statistical reporting on the entire Russian Federation, an attempt to draw a portrait of the average principal of an educational organization, highlight the specific regional characteristics (age, gender composition, experience, qualifications, and so on).   
Added: Oct 23, 2014
Working paper
Loyalka P., Zakharov A. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2014
High school students, across the world, prepare for college by participating in shadow education. Despite substantial investments in shadow education, however, little is known about whether it helps students prepare for college. The goal of our study is to provide rigorous evidence about the causal impacts of participating in shadow education on college preparation. We analyze unique data from Russia using a cross-subject student fixed effects model. We find that participating in shadow education positively impacts high-achieving students but not low-achieving students. Participating in shadow education further does not lead students to substitute time away from other out-of-school studies. Instead, the results suggest that low-achieving students participate in low-quality shadow education, which, in turn, contributes to inequality in college access.
Added: Jan 27, 2014
Working paper
Kamaev A., Tovar-García E. D. SSOAR. 0168-ssoar-46748-7. Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences (GESIS), 2016
This article examines how migrant background influences educational outcomes of schoolchildren in Moscow and its oblast (region). We use logit regressions for panel data, over the years 2010 to 2013, taken from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE). As dependent variable we use educational progress approached by school grades as reported by parents or adult relatives. In addition, our econometric specification includes control variables such as socioeconomic status, type of school, health issues, gender, and age, to test the impact of migration status on the probability of being classified as a successful or unsuccessful student. The findings suggest that there is no difference between migrant and native schoolchildren, that is, migration background does not influence the educational achievements of pupils. On the other hand, as we expected, socioeconomic status has a negative impact on the probability of being classified an unsuccessful student. Boys have lower probabilities than girls of being classified as excellent students. Attendance of public regular schools negatively affects the probability of being an excellent student, health issues do not significantly affect the academic performance, while older students are low-performing.
Added: May 3, 2016
Working paper
Mkrtychyan G. Series: Education. WP BRP . НИУ ВШЭ, 2016. No. 31/EDU/2015 .
This paper introduces an original methodology for assessing organizational culture of an entrepreneurial university. Methods for the assessment of values in research activity and of resistance to organizational change have been developed. The study of values and characteristics of resistance to change was conducted on the academic staff of the faculties of Economics and Management at the Nizhny Novgorod campus of the Higher School of Economics. It was found that the campus professors' academic orientation in research activity dominates over entrepreneurial orientation and differs depending on values. Additionally, greatest resistance in professors is caused by changes in human resources policy and management; this resistance is of moderate intensity and passive. The study confirmed a positive relationship between the academic orientation of the "motivation" and "reward" values and the intensity of resistance to change in personnel policy and management.
Added: Apr 13, 2016
Working paper
Poldin O. V., Yudkevich M. M., Simoes T. et al. Education. EDU. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 30/EDU/2015.
Social interactions with peers during learning have a significant impact on university students’ academic achievement. As social ties are voluntary, an empirical estimation of peer effects is exposed to a potential endogeneity problem. To overcome this issue, we propose to define the peer group of an individual as their predicted friends. The specific features of the learning environment in higher education institutions may affect dimensions along which friendship ties form. To test the presence of peer effects in different educational and cultural contexts, we use data on students studying in two universities located in two different countries, Brazil and Russia. We assume that friendship is affected by homophily in student attributes, such as having the same region of origin, the same gender, and sharing the same study group. In both institutions, we find positive externalities from having high-ability peers.
Added: Nov 10, 2015