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Regular version of the site
Of all publications in the section: 16
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Working paper
Sergey L. Barinov, Petr K. International Relations. IR. Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2014
Euroregions is an important and quite popular mechanism of cross-border cooperation. Character of institutions development differs essentially between three groups of states, which use this mechanism: old members of the European Union; new members of the European Union (entered the EU after 2003); CIS members. This comparative research is concerned with the main circumstances of euroregions development in three areas noted above. The analyses show the fundamental differences between three Euroregion cases: Oresund, Pskov-Livonia and Dnieper. Those differences are noticeable in legislative basic, financing, cooperation issues, and even in four basic Euroregions principles realizing. Meanwhile we see that after fifteen years of copying the Euroregions in post-soviet countries the positive shifts occur in CIS members’ government perception and in the decision making process.
Added: Oct 11, 2014
Working paper
Domracheva M., Kulikova S. BioRxiv. New Results. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2019
The most common tools to understand perception of food products are hall-tests, surveys, observations, etc. However to get reliable results these approaches require large samples, making them costly and time-consuming. Furthermore, they are also highly expert-dependent and rely on the assumption that study participants can express their preferences consciously and explicitly. Here we suggested an EEG-based approach to evaluate perceived product similarity in a cross-modal taste-visual task. Two candidate neurometrics measured from Fz electrode were tested: the amplitude of N430-620 from evoked response potentials (ERP) and the power of induced gamma oscillations during 400-600 ms period after visual stimulus presentation. Both suggested metrics showed a strong correlation with the perceived similarity scores at both individual and group levels, however N430-630 had greater inter-subject variability making it less suitable for practical applications. The results based on the power of induced gamma oscillations (N=18) not only reflected the results from traditional hall-tests (N=200) but also allowed better discrimination between different food products.
Added: Oct 24, 2019
Working paper
Butorina A., Nikolaeva A. Y., Prokofyev A. O. et al. BioRxiv. New Results. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2018
Whether the motor cortex activation accompanying concrete verbs comprehension is necessary for verbs conceptual processing is still a hotly debated topic in the literature. Answering this question, we examined to what extent the more difficult access to verb semantics requires an additional engagement of cortical motor system in verb generation task. Using power suppression of MEG beta oscillations (15-30 Hz) as an index of sensorimotor activation, we presented to our participants the noun cues which either were strongly associated with a single verb and prompted the fast and effortless verb retrieval, or were weakly associated with multiple verbs and were more difficult to respond to. A whole-brain analysis of beta suppression revealed that the only cortical regions sensitive to the difficulty of semantic access were the higher order motor areas on the medial and lateral surfaces of the frontal lobe. This differential activation of cortical motor system accompanied effortful verb retrieval and preceded the preparation of vocal response for more than 500 milliseconds. Since the mid-frontal frontal brain areas are involved in maintaining abstract representations of actions during their initiating and planning, we argue that our finding supports the view that motor associations contribute to retrieval of verb semantics.
Added: Nov 29, 2018
Working paper
Щур В. Л., Ziganurova L., Durbin R. BioRxiv. New Results. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2018
Estimation of the relationship between DNA sequences is one of the most important problems in genomics. Understanding these relationships is central to de- mographic inference, correction of population structure in GWAS, identifying signals of selection etc. The data structure containing the full information about sample genealogy is called the ancestral recombination graph (ARG). However, ARG inference is a very dicult problem, not least due to a very complex state space. In this work we describe a new approach for fast and scalable generation of local tree topologies relating large numbers of haplotypes. Our method is closely related to the estimation of ARG, and captures both local and global properties of an ARG. It is based on a data structure which we call tree consistent PBWT , a modi cation of PBWT data structure intro- duced by R. Durbin (2014). We also explore some methods to estimate the quality of the generated tree topologies and to make inferences based on them. At the end we discuss a probabilistic model which could potentially lead to the estimation of ARG node times.
Added: Feb 7, 2019
Working paper
Fedotenkov I., Derkachev P. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper. MPRA Paper. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), 2017. No. 83215.
In most countries, women live longer than men. Differences in longevities are country-specific and change over time. We perform a cross-country panel data analysis in developed countries (OECD and EU) to study the gender-longevity gap dependence on various socio-economic indicators and test a number of contradicting theories. We show that a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women’s aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men’s unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. The effect of the share of women in parliaments in the gender-longevity gap is estimated to have a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a 5-years lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.
Added: Dec 12, 2017
Working paper
Pich i Rosello O., Vlasova A., Shichkova P. et al. Biorxiv. 005140. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2017
Human genetic variability is thought to account for a substantial fraction of individual biochemical characteristics — in biomedical sense, of individual drug response. However, only a handful of human genetic variants have been linked to medication outcomes. Here, we combine data on drug-protein interactions and human genome sequences to assess the impact of human variation on their binding affinity. Using data from the complexes of FDA-drugs and drug-like compounds, we predict SNPs substantially affecting the protein-ligand binding affinities. We estimate that an average individual carries ~6 SNPs affecting ~5 different FDA-approved drugs from among all of the approved compounds. SNPs affecting drug-protein binding affinity have low frequency in the population indicating that the genetic component for many ADEs may be highly personalized with each individual carrying a unique set of relevant SNPs. The reduction of ADEs, therefore, may primarily rely on the application of computational genome analysis in the clinic rather than the experimental study of common SNPs.
Added: Jul 7, 2017
Working paper
Kyzyngasheva E., Proskuryakova L. N. Science, Technology and Innovation. WP BRP. Высшая школа экономики, 2016. No. 64.
Despite the success of many countries in increasing energy saving and energy efficiency, the global energy consumption is expected to continue its growth. The main reasons are economic development and population growth happening primarily in developing and emerging economies, especially in India and China. In such circumstances fossil fuels will remain the dominant energy source in the medium and even long run. The present research paper aims at analyzing the current global trends in the energy sector identified through literature review and expert tools, and their influence on Russia. Considering a broad range of factors, the paper determined the following main challenges for the Russian energy sector: tightening competition at international energy markets, the need for comprehensive modernization and stronger energy efficiency measures, the need for technological catch-up in a number of energy sector segments, the need to increase recovery factor at traditional oilfields, and the need to diversify energy mix by increasing the share of renewables. The paper also considers the main rationale for the last challenge that include strengthened security, reliability and sustainability of the Russian energy sector. Among the key preconditions for advancements in renewable energy are improvements in investment climate, modernisation of the central grid and changes in energy policy. The paper is based on the outcomes of the first stage of the Foresight project devoted to renewable energy technologies.
Added: Jul 20, 2016
Working paper
Kondratev A., Mironov V., Shkurko A. Plant Biology. 415539. BioRxiv, 2018
Continuous high-resolution monitoring of Sphagnum growth can provide insights into the biological rhythms of moss growth. Moss Sphagnum riparium is a convenient model for growth monitoring. Application of the method of geotropic curvatures has enabled a three-year monitoring with two to five-day intervals. We measured the increment in ca. 85000 shoots and produced ca. 3500 growth rate estimates, making this study a champion in precision compared to previous efforts. The zeitgeber for seasonal growth rhythms is the temperature seasonal cycle (R2=0.21–0.52). When the temperature changes by 10C, moss growth rate is modified by 0.10–0.17cm/day according to the linear model, and 1.47–2.06-fold in the exponential model. The zeitgeber for circalunar rhythms is the lunar synodic cycle (R2=0.14–0.26). The average amplitude of the fluctuations it induces in the growth rate is 0.0425–0.0572cm/day, which is equivalent to the effect of a 3.43–4.53C change in temperature. The third rhythm can be distinguished in periodograms. Its period ranges from 10 to 16 days, but we did not detect the zeitgeber. In total, three rhythms explain 51–78% of the growth rate. We believe that the strong rhythmicity in Sphagnum growth is associated with shoot growth synchronization.
Added: Oct 2, 2018
Working paper
Oster A., Faure P., Gutkin B. BioRxiv. http://dx.doi.org/. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2014. No. 10.1101/008920.
Midbrain ventral segmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons send numerous projections to cortical and sub-cortical areas, and diffusely release dopamine (DA) to their targets. DA neurons display a range of activity modes that vary in frequency and degree of burst ring. Importantly, DA neuronal bursting is associated with a significantly greater degree of DA release than an equivalent tonic activity pattern. Here, we introduce a single compartmental, conductance-based computational model for DA cell activity that captures the behavior of DA neuronal dynamics and examine the multiple factors that underlie DA firing modes: the strength of the SK conductance, the amount of drive, and GABA inhibition. Our results suggest that neurons with low SK conductance are in a fast firing mode, are correlated with burst firing, and require higher levels of applied current before undergoing depolarization block. We go on to consider the role of GABAergic inhibition on an ensemble of dynamical classes of DA neurons and find that strong GABA inhibition suppresses burst firing. Our studies suggest differences in the distribution of the SK conductance and GABA inhibition levels may indicate subclasses of DA neurons within the VTA. We further identify, that by considering alternate potassium dynamics, the dynamics display burst patterns that terminate via depolarization block, akin to those observed in vivo in VTA DA neurons and in substantia nigra pars compacta DA cell preparations under apamin application. In addition, we consider the generation of transient burst ring events that are NMDA-initiated or elicited by a sudden decrease of GABA inhibition, that is, disinhibition.
Added: Feb 17, 2015
Working paper
Zubarev I., Ossadtchi A., Klucharev V. et al. 1. 1. Центр Нейроэкономики и когнититвных исследований, 2014
Humans often adjust their behavior to match the group norms. In this study, we used magnetoencephalographic (MEG) source imaging to investigate the electromagnetic responses to the perceived mismatch between individual and group opinions. After participants were exposed to group opinion that conflicted with their own, we observed an evoked response in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex (pMPFC) occurring around 200 ms, corresponding to the feedback-related negativity (FRN) – a component of the evoked response associated with processing negative feedback and reinforcement learning. This response was accompanied by an increase in  power of theta oscillations (4-8 Hz) over a number of frontal sites (including OFC and pMPFC). The magnitude of both evoked and induced responses to the perceived conflict with social norms was stronger in participants who showed relatively low conformity. Overall, our results suggest that the activation of the pMPFC following conflicts with group opinion, as recoded by MEG, may reflect an enhanced control state – a process complimentary to the reinforcement learning signal in the ventral striatum reported in previous studies of social conformity
Added: Oct 29, 2014
Working paper
Vladimir Shchur, Svedberg J., Medina P. et al. BioRxiv. New Results. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2019. No. 724815.
Admixture is increasingly being recognized as an important factor in evolutionary genetics. The distribution of genomic admixture tracts, and the resulting effects on admixture linkage disequilibrium, can be used to date the timing of admixture between species or populations. However, the theory used for such prediction assumes selective neutrality despite the fact that many famous examples of admixture involve natural selection acting for or against admixture. In this paper, we investigate the effects of positive selection on the distribution of tract lengths. We develop a theoretical framework that relies on approximating the trajectory of the selected allele using a logistic function. By numerically calculating the expected allele trajectory, we also show that the approach can be extended to cases where the logistic approximation is poor due to the effects of genetic drift. Using simulations, we show that the model is highly accurate under most scenarios. We use the model to show that positive selection on average will tend to increase the admixture tract length. However, perhaps counter-intuitively, conditional on the allele frequency at the time of sampling, positive selection will actually produce shorter expected tract lengths. We discuss the consequences of our results in interpreting the timing of the introgression of EPAS1 from Denisovans into the ancestors of Tibetans.
Added: Aug 23, 2019
Working paper
Proskuryakova L. N. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2015. No. 44.
The Foresight study presented in this paper is devoted to the sustainable use of water resources in Russia. The authors analyse possible trajectories of development in the three thematic areas (i) sustainability of water systems; (ii) water use by households and in industry; and (iii) new water products and services. The Foresight methods cover expert interviews and seminars, desk research, and policy analysis. The state and corporate policy recommendations for the water sector offered in this study correspond with the water scenarios earlier identified by Saritas et al.: “Nearly ideal future”, “Losses and accidents”, “Problem conservation”, and “National Priority” [Saritas et al., 2015]. For each of these four scenarios, policy recommendations for water companies were identified covering new solutions (including technological innovations), new values and competencies, organisational changes, modernisation of the infrastructure, financial issues, and legal and regulatory changes. Moreover, we recommend certain policy measures and approaches to state policy in the water sector.  The paper concludes with the main directions and instruments for the sector’s development, which should be planned and implemented jointly by the government and businesses, as well as other stakeholders (organisations and people).
Added: Aug 31, 2015
Working paper
Shcherbak A. Basic research program. WP BRP. National Research University Higher School of Economics, 2016. No. 70.
The paper aims to reveal the relationship between improvement in human diet and transition to democracy. The spread of a ‘European diet’ – the diet with historically unprecedented high proportion of animal proteins in daily calories intake – is likely to be one of the factors of regime change since 1992. In contrast to other studies, I regard European diet as an outcome of long historical transformation and show that improvement in nutrition preceded regime change. To get data on nutrients consumption around the world I apply to the Food balance sheets data from FAOSTAT. Based on this data I are able to define a European diet as the one containing animal protein-rich items (mostly, meat and dairy), alcohol beverages and sugar. Using OLS, factor analysis and SEM I test the direct and indirect effects of the European diet on the chance of transition to democracy and find positive impact of improvement in diet on political change. My findings reveal that improvement in diet affects democratization, but not vice versa.
Added: Jun 21, 2016
Working paper
Ayzenberg A. math. arxive. Cornell University, 2019
The general goal of this paper is to gather and review several methods from homotopy and combinatorial topology and formal concepts analysis (FCA) and analyze their connections. FCA appears naturally in the problem of combinatorial simplification of simplicial complexes and allows to see a certain duality on a class of simplicial complexes. This duality generalizes Poincare duality on cell subdivisions of manifolds. On the other hand, with the notion of a topological formal context, we review the classical proofs of two basic theorems of homotopy topology: Alexandrov Nerve theorem and Quillen--McCord theorem, which are both important in the applications. A brief overview of the applications of the Nerve theorem in brain studies is given. The focus is made on the task of the external stimuli space reconstruction from the activity of place cells. We propose to use the combination of FCA and topology in the analysis of neural codes. The lattice of formal concepts of a neural code is homotopy equivalent to the nerve complex, but, moreover, it allows to analyse certain implication relations between collections of neural cells.
Added: Nov 15, 2019
Working paper
Derkachev P. Public Administration. PA. Высшая школа экономики, 2015. No. WP BRP 28/PA/2015.
This article considers the uneven positions of school teachers in different regions of the Russian Federation. There exist numerous research works on the relation of school teachers’ salaries to the characteristics of regional educational systems and regional economies. A range of indicators is used to calculate school teachers’ salaries. It is necessary to consider the ratio of the teachers’ salary to the average salary in the region, the latter serving as a target indicator in government programs, in combination with other indicators, such as the ratio of the salary to the price of a fixed set of goods and services and the ratio of the teachers’ salary fund to total regional government expenditures. Research based on cluster data analysis statistical methods allowed the author to distinguish four types of regions. We used official data provided by Russian Federal State Statistics Service and the Russian Federal Treasury. The recommendations developed for each cluster of regions seek to improve the efficiency of the steps aimed at the implementation of the educational policy tasks through differentiating the support measures by the federal government
Added: Apr 30, 2015
Working paper
Бусыгин В. П., Левин М. И., Матросова К. А. и др. серия препринтов РАНХиГС. id2607463. РАНХиГС при Президенте РФ, 2014. № 2607463.
Environmental economics is impossible without monitoring of environmental changes. Monitoring, as every other kind of principal-agent relations, easily provokes corrupt behavior. In the present study, we analyze economic models concerning this issue: papers on environmental monitoring with high value of monitoring and incomplete information, works on corruption in environmental economics and ecological problems of management in industries, collaboration of officials and firms against monitoring. We analyze and classify different ways of monitoring depending on political systems, costs of monitoring, type of the market and so on. We also build our own model that incorporates market failures of the real world and information asymmetry. We also analyze the present ecological situation in the Russian Federation, in particular we discuss the issues of forest protection, fishing, and waste recycling. 
Added: Nov 24, 2015