This book introduces a 'Big History' perspective to understand the acceleration of social, technological and economic trends towards a near-term singularity, marking a radical turning point in the evolution of our planet. It traces the emergence of accelerating innovation rates through global history and highlights major historical transformations throughout the evolution of life, humans, and civilization. The authors pursue an interdisciplinary approach, also drawing on concepts from physics and evolutionary biology, to offer potential models of the underlying mechanisms driving this acceleration, along with potential clues on how it might progress. The contributions gathered here are divided into five parts, the first of which studies historical mega-trends in relation to a variety of aspects including technology, population, energy, and information. The second part is dedicated to a variety of models that can help understand the potential mechanisms, and support extrapolation. In turn, the third part explores various potential future scenarios, along with the paths and decisions that are required. The fourth part presents philosophical perspectives on the potential deeper meaning and implications of the trend towards singularity, while the fifth and last part discusses the implications of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Given its scope, the book will appeal to scholars from various disciplines interested in historical trends, technological change and evolutionary processes.
Ruining of the technological culture in universities has affected quality of the high level education. In the postgraduate education which has become the third level of education it is shown especially brightly. Frequently applicants have no outlook that is researches and the Ph.D thesis preparing. Also choice of a research subject leaves on a background at all. More and more potential postgraduates have such troubles. In the paper, an algorithm of finding a research problem is described for the potential post-graduate students. The field doesn't matter but some attention is paid to open problems of automatics. Various scenarios and strategy in detection of the research problem are considered. Features of good problems are revealed. Do not forget about risk estimation because of the problem should be finalized within frameworks of postgraduate study. Issues of effective interaction with advisor are mentioned. Evaluation of quality of post-graduate work is carried out by published papers, therefore some advices concern publication activity are given. It is the useful information for those who has reflected for the first time on postgraduate applying, but probably overdue for those who has already enlisted.