The publication is the third in a series of works devoted to the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission) and is a compilation of analytical materials (Opinions and Reports) of the Venice Commission on justice issues. The first section deals with the rule of law and the role of justice and contains, inter alia, the Report on the rule of law. A separate section is devoted to the constitutional framework of judiciary in some countries: special attention is paid to the Venice Commission’s opinions on judicial reforms in Armenia, Kazakhstan, the problems of organizing the judiciary in Poland. Section three, «Independence of judges and their appointment», contains a number of Venice Commission’s analytical materials on the independence of judiciary and judges. Section four reveals the problem of judicial ethics and disciplinary responsibility of judges. The final section contains material on the improvement of the judicial procedure. The most part of the presented materials are translated into Russian for the first time. The publication also includes scientific articles on justice issues written by members of the Venice Commission.
The collective monograph presents the scientific research of important legal and economic problems of social security, also is given the analysis of the current situation in the sphere of social security, its development is estimated and predicted, solutions of the existing problems are offered.
The monograph is in the interest of researchers, public authorities, academicians, students, post-graduates and all readers interested in development of social security.
The presented research and practical manual is devoted to the contemporary problems of the legal regulation of circulation of precious metals and precious stones in the Russian Federation. The book is based on the analysis of numerous literature presents, the author describes approaches to the definition of notions „precious metals“ and „precious stones“. The second section of the book is devoted to the evolution of legal regulation of circulation of precious metals and precious stones in the XVII–XX centuries. Particular attention is paid to the study of monetary and legal regime of circulation of precious metals and precious stones, legal regulation of international reserves of the Russian Federation. The special place is occupied by the study of budgetary and legal aspects of circulation of precious metals and precious stones, the legal regulation of the State Fund of Precious Metals and Precious Stones of the Russian Federation as well as the legal regime of revenues from the sale of precious metals and precious stones. The present edition will be interesting to researchers, teaching staff and students of higher educational institutions, public authorities and local governments, legal practitioners, as well as all interested persons in the problems of financial law, currency law and circulation of precious metals and precious stones.