Концепция политики активного долголетия
Despite the economic and political transitions, slowly recovering birth rate and low life expectancy in 2016 older people are predicted to constitute a quarter of total population (24.8%) in Russia. People considered old now and getting old soon are 'children of the Soviets', which means they've inherited lack of personal initiative, little understanding of the concept of volunteering, and paternalistic views that the State must provide all for people. Younger older people (60-69) reveal the same patterns of very low civic engagement as the rest of the population (4-4.5%), naturally the rate drops further for older ages. However, older people volunteer more frequently than others for particular organizations such as veterans' unions, local communities and condominiums' baords and committees, religious organizations. This role is supported by public expectations that older people're engaged with their families and homes only (63%), 28% believe they are a burden, however 42% think they're a resource. A number of nonprofits do offer a range of volunteer opportunities for older people.
This paper is aimed at applying and analyzing international active ageing indices in Russia, including the Active Ageing Index (AAI), developed by European Centre Vienna, and Global AgeWatch Index by HelpAge International, to provide the base for cross-national comparison and development of a comprehensive national policy on active ageing. Our research was motivated by the following questions (1) to what extent can the international approaches to measure active ageing be applied to the Russian context and data? (2) to what extent a country’s position in the ranking is sensitive to the index methodology and data used? (3) whether and under what conditions Russia can improve its positions in the active ageing indices? To answer these questions, we estimated the AAI for Russia based on eight data sources and recalculated some of the AgeWatch Index results based on reliable data. The methodology of both indices and the quality and adequacy of the data used are discussed in detail in the paper. The results show that ranking of Russia according to these indices varies considerably from the 65th place out of 96 countries by the Global AgeWatch Index to the 18th place among 29 countries (28 EU countries plus Russia) by the AAI. Nevertheless, both indices draw rather similar pictures of active ageing potential in Russia. We provide some recommendations on how the indicators can be modified to capture some peculiarities of the ageing context in Russia and other countries with similar demographic, economic and social context.
This article discusses an important issue of older people’s image in the modern world. The authors’ research results demonstrate that perceptions of older people in Russia are quite controversial, but overall are rather negative. Poverty, inadequacy to the modern world (both in terms of life experience and adaptability to the modern life style), passiveness and concentration on the family and home were reported by the respondents as qualities most typical for older people. However, these perceptions change towards more positive ones while talking about older people they know closely and expectations towards their own older age appear to be more of active ageing, active life style.