Two complete mitochondrial genome sequences of ship sturgeon Acipenser nudiventris from the Caspian Sea and from Balkhash Lake (introduced from the Aral Sea during the last century) were determined by PCR-based sequencing method. The whole mitogenome sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KU321568 and KU321569.
The article investigates diachronic changes in infinitival complementation from Caucasian Albanian to modern Udi dialects. It describes the syntactic structure of infinitival complements in Caucasian Albanian, nineteenth century Vartashen Udi, and two modern dialects, and concentrates on case marking of overt subjects in constructions with the matrix verbs ‘can, be able’, ‘begin’, and ‘want’. From a diachronic point of view, the data presented in the article allow us to conclude that historical changes in both the lexical form of complement-taking predicates and the morphology of their complements obey Cristofaro’s (2003) Complement Deranking Hierarchy.
The taxonomy of common northern nudibranch molluscs of the genus Dendronotus in the vast cold regions of Eurasia remains largely unknown. Abundant material collected in many localities from the Barents Sea, via the Arctic region, to the north-west Pacific was analysed for the first time. An integrated approach combining morphological and ontogenetic data with molecular four-gene (COI, 16S, H3, and 28S) analysis reveals seven species, including three previously undescribed. Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius, 1774) and Dendronotus dalli Bergh, 1879 were commonly considered as amphiboreal species; however, according to this study they are restricted to the North Atlantic and the North Pacific, respectively. In the north-west Pacific two new species were discovered, Dendronotus kamchaticus sp. nov. and Dendronotus kalikal sp. nov., that are externally similar to D. frondosus, but that show significant distance according to molecular analysis and are considerably different in radular morphology. In the North Atlantic a new species Dendronotus niveus sp. nov., sibling to North Pacific D. dalli, is revealed. The separate status of North Atlantic Dendronotus lacteus (Thompson, 1840) is confirmed, including considerable range extension. The essential similarity of early ontogenetic stages of radular development common for species with disparate adult radular morphology (such as D. frondosus and D. dalli) is shown, and its importance for taxonomy is discussed.
The paper considers the pronoun used in logophoric contexts in Archi, an East Caucasian language of the Lezgic group. Like many other languages of the family, Archi shows a formal connection between logophoric and reflexive pronouns. The latter differs from the former in that it carries an obligatory intensifier particle. This connection questions the suggestion in Culy (1997; cf. also Dimmendaal (2011) to separate Africanstyle ‘pure’ logophoric systems from systems where a long-distance reflexive is used in the same context. Culy (1997), in a typological analysis of logophoricity, argues that longdistance reflexives in logophoric contexts are a secondary extension of the reflexive function. Toldova (1999), in an overview of East Caucasian systems, suggests on the contrary that, in these languages, logophoricity is the primary function and the reflexive function is its extension. In their approaches, neither Culy nor Toldova rely on notions such as focus of empathy (Kuno 1987), and Culy even explicitly disproves its relevance for the typology of logophoric systems. The solution suggested in the present study is discoursebased and is not unlike the focus of empathy. Both logophoric and reflexive uses of the Archi pronoun, corresponding to two clearly different and well established comparative concepts, constitute one descriptive category (Haspelmath 2010). They both are extensions of the core function of the pronoun which is to mark the special pragmatic/discourse role of its referent – extensions that involve grammaticization of the pronoun in specific contexts as reflexives and logophoric.
Cheliped construction, in particular the teeth pattern on chelae fingers is considered as most important character suit (along with burrowing/swimming apparatus) for the diagnosis of Portunoidea. Heterochelic and heterodontic chelipeds with the molariform tooth in the larger chela and multi-lobed serial teeth are presumably ancestral and most common pattern for the group. New material (mostly species of Thalamitinae Paulson, 1875, Lupocyclus Adamd and White, 1848 and Portunus Weber, 1795 sensu lato) have been combined with the existing sequences from the GenBank to produce molecular phylogenetic reconstructions based on the histone H3 gene fragment and a multi-gene tree (for smaller set of species) based on partial sequences of H3, D1 region of 28S gene and mitochondrial COI gene. These reconstructions have not provided necessary support to the monophyly of Portunoidea sensu lato but indicated the presence of several monophyletic lineages, i.e. Portunidae sensu stricto, Polybiidae + Thiidae + Carcinidae + Pirimelidae, Benthochascon + Geryonidae (to lesser extent), and Ovalipes. Monophyly of the Portunidae sensu stricto is supported by both the H3 and multigene trees and morphological evidence. Swimming capacity probably evolves as a result of parallel evolution in at least three different lineages of portunoids. A new version of the family level classification of Portunoidea and a key to their families are provided with the following taxa: Geryonidae (Geryoninae + Benthochasconinaeˇ ́ 1991, Thiidae, Pirimelidae, Carcinidae McLeay, subfam. nov.), Ovalipidae fam. nov., Brusiniidae Stevˇci c,1838 (Carcininae + Portumninae Ortmann, 1893), Polybiidae Ortmann, 1893, and Portunidae Rafinesque, 1815 sensu stricto. The most radical change in the systematics of Portunidae sensu stricto is the final recognition of the polyphyly of Portunus sensu lato and the need for revalidization and re-diagnozing of several taxa that were synonymized by Stephenson and Campbell (1959) and Stephenson (1972) under Portunus. While some subfamilies of the Portunidae (Podophthalminae Dana, 1851, Thalamitinae, and Lupocyclinae Alcock, 1895) are well supported by molecular phylogenies and the presence of morphological synapomorphies, the others need re-assessment.