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Of all publications in the section: 10
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Article
Martínez-Ferreiro S., Bastiaanse R., Boye K. Aphasiology. 2019.

Background: Functional and usage-based theories of language are gaining increasing influence in linguistics. These theories understand language structure as underpinned by domain-general neurocognitive capacities and as shaped by usage patterns and the function of language as a means for communication. Accordingly, they entail an approach to aphasia which differs markedly from established ones based on formal theories.

Aims: Based on an outline of central claims in functional and usage-based theories, we aim to show how such theories can cast new light on aphasia.

Methods & Procedures: We focus on two strands of functional and usage-based aphasiological research: 1) research on frequency effects in aphasic speech, 2) and research on the grammatical-lexical distinction and its significance for the description of aphasic speech and the understanding of the causes of aphasia. We review available studies that fall within the two aforementioned strands of research, assessing their strengths and limitations.

Outcomes & Results: Usage-based methodologies are currently being developed that allow for fast quantification of the degree of formulaicity of a language sample and may thus be helpful in ascertaining the role of fossilized multiword expressions in aphasia. In line with central claims in usage-based linguistics, the first results of studies employing these methodologies have shown that frequency and collocation strength facilitate the retrieval of multiword expressions in a way that resembles the way in which lexical frequency facilitate retrieval of isolated words.

A recent functional and usage-based theory understands the grammatical-lexicon distinction as a means for prioritizing parts of complex linguistic messages. Defining grammatical items as items that are discursively secondary (background) and dependent on host items, this theory entails an account of grammatical deficits which bridges the gap between existing structure-oriented and processing-oriented accounts. The theory entails word-class general criteria that allow fine-grained classification of linguistic items as grammatical or lexical. Cross-linguistic studies of verb, pronoun and preposition production show that this classification is significant for the description of aphasic language.

Conclusions: Functional and usage-based studies of aphasia are still sparse, but show promising results. This approach seems especially qualified for understanding 1) the neurocognitive causes of various types of aphasia, 2) the variability across languages, communicative settings (including tasks and modalities), groups of individuals and individuals, which is characteristic of aphasic speech, and 3) the link between aphasia symptoms and the basic need and challenge for people with aphasia: to remain a social being by communicating with other social beings.

Added: Oct 18, 2019
Article
Bondarenko G.G., Shagaev V. V. Journal of Advanced Materials. 2002. Vol. 9 (2). P. 167-172.

Results are presented of investigations of the temperature dependence of the frequency of the surface magnetostatic waves in the cubic ferrite film—permanent magnet system. Analy­sis made of the conditions of thermal stability of the frequency and the essential require­ments are proposed for the parameters of the film and the magnet. The results show that the best thermally compensating properties are typical of the films with the orientation {110} and magnets with positive temperature coefficients of spontaneous magnetisation. The experimental investigations were carried out on films of iron-yttrium garnet and magnets of (NdDy Tb Ho Gd) (Fe Co) В alloys. The temperature dependences of the frequencies from the longwave part of the spectrum were characterised by non-monotonic sections. At the maximum of the dependences, the temperature coefficients showed the zero value. The highest thermally stable frequency, 4.6 GHz, was recorded in the field with a strength of 1070 Oe and a temperature coefficients of 0.3 Oe/°C.

Added: Nov 29, 2013
Book chapter
Apresyan V. In bk.: Space and Time in Languages and Cultures. Language, culture, and cognition. Iss. 37. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012. Ch. 5. P. 103-120.

The chapter explores the semantics and pragmatics of the Russian temporal syntactic phraseme ‘X to X,’ (a construction characterized by a semantically restricted set of lexical items able to fill in its syntactic variables) which expresses either the speaker’s surprise at the fact that events go as planned (surprising punctuality interpretation) or the speaker’s surprise at the fact that unplanned events go as if they had been pre-planned (surprising fateful coincidence interpretation). While the construction is not unique, and occurs in other languages, its preferred interpretations are language-specific. The chapter demonstrates differences between Russian and English outlooks on time, based on their fundamental differences in linguistic worldviews. According to one of the central key ideas of the Russian linguistic worldview, events are difficult for human subjects to control, as they are commonly controlled by outside forces, such as fate, and therefore surprising punctuality interpretation prevails in Russian. English, which does not view punctuality as something out of the ordinary, favours the surprising fateful coincidence interpretation of this syntactic phraseme. The idea of fate in relation to temporality is also found in other languages, as demonstrated by Bernard Charlier’s research on Mongolian temporality in his chapter in the current volume.

Added: Nov 1, 2012
Book chapter
Lopukhina A., Лопухин К. А. In bk.: Electronic lexicography in the 21st century. Proceedings of eLex 2017 conference. Brno: Lexical Computing CZ s.r.o., 2017. P. 267-280.

In this paper, we investigate several extensions to our prior work on sense frequency estimation for Russian. Our method is based on semantic vectors and is able to achieve good accuracy for sense frequency estimation trained on dictionary entries from the Active Dictionary of Russian and unannotated corpora. We apply our method to verbs and adjectives to obtain sense frequencies for 329 verbs and 256 adjectives in an academic corpus and a web-based corpus. We compare frequency distributions against dictionary sense ordering and between two corpora and find that the first dictionary sense is not the most frequent for almost half of the words we studied. Evaluation of verbs and adjectives shows that frequency estimation error is lower than 15%. We investigate the effect of sense granularity, evaluating how the accuracy of our method changes when applied to more coarse-grained senses. We also investigate if our method can be applied to other dictionaries with less elaborate sense descriptions, by evaluating its accuracy when training on dictionary entries from two other dictionaries. 

Added: Sep 27, 2017
Article
Iomdin B., Lopukhina A., Лопухин К. А. et al. Компьютерная лингвистика и интеллектуальные технологии. 2016. No. 15. P. 214-225.

When words have several senses, it is important to describe them properly in dictionary (a lexicographic task) and to be able to distinguish them in a given context (a computational linguistics task, WSD). Different senses normally have different frequencies in corpora. We introduced several techniques for determining sense frequency based on dictionary entries matched with data from large corpora. Information about word sense frequency is not only useful for explanatory lexicography and WSD, but it also may enrich language learning resources. Learners of a foreign language who encounter a word similar to one of their native language are often tempted to assume that the foreign word and its equivalent have the same meaning structure. Sometimes, however, this is not the case, and the most frequent sense of a word in one language may be much less frequent for its cognate. We proposed a method for detecting such cases. Having selected a set of Russian words included into the Active Dictionary of Russian which have more than two dictionary senses and have cognates in English, we estimated the frequencies for English and Russian senses using SemCor and Russian National Corpus respectively, matched the senses in each pair of words and compared their frequencies. Thus we revealed cases in which the most frequent senses and whole meaning structures are, cross-linguistically, substantially different and studied them in more detail. This technique can be applied not only to cognates, but also to pairs of words which are usually offered by the dictionaries as the translation equivalents of each other.

Added: Oct 11, 2016
Article
Мюллер Ю. Э. Lingua mobilis. 2013. № 6 (45). С. 52-61.

The article deals with the influence of language usage on the translation process. Inadequacy of language usage distorts the original and reduces the quality of the translation. Language usage manifests in standard combinations, situation descriptions, the frequency of certain forms and categories. Differences in language ​usage such as ways of describing situations, selection of language units for standard combinations, quantitative characteristics of language usage in the source language and target language may cause divergence  from the dictionary equivalent in the translation process.

Added: Apr 23, 2014
Book chapter
Иомдин Б. Л., Панина М. Ф., Лопухина А. А. и др. В кн.: Компьютерная лингвистика и интеллектуальные технологии: По материалам ежегодной Международной конференции «Диалог» (Бекасово, 29 мая - 2 июня 2013 г.). В 2-х т.. Т. 1: Основная программа конференции. Вып. 12 (19). М.: РГГУ, 2013. С. 311-324.

The paper continues research into words denoting everyday life objects in the Russian language. This research is conducted for developing a new encyclopedic thesaurus of Russian everyday life terminology. Working on this project brings up linguistic material which leads to discovering new trends and phenomena not covered by the existing dictionaries. We discuss derivation models which gain polularity: clipped forms (komp < komp’juter ‘computer’, nout < noutbuk ‘notebook computer’, vel < velosiped ‘bicycle’, mot<motocikl ‘motorbike’), competing masculine and feminine con- tracted nouns derived from adjectival noun phrases (mobil’nik (m.) / mo- bilka (f.) < mobil’nyj telefon (m.) ‘mobile phone’, zarjadnik (m.) / zarjadka (f.) < zarjadnoe ustrojstvo (n.) ‘AC charger’), hybrid compounds (plat’e- sviter ‘sweater dress’, jubka-brjuki ‘skirt pants’, shapkosharf ‘scarf hat’, vilkolozhka ‘spork, foon’). These words vary in spelling and syntactic behav- iour. We describe a newly formed series of words denoted multifunctional objects: mfushkaZ< MFU < mnogofunkcional’noe ustrojstvo ‘MFD, multi- function device’, mul’titul ‘multitool’, centr ‘unit, set’. Explaining the need to compose frequency lists of word meanings rather than just words, we of- fer a technique for gathering such lists and provide a sample produced from our own data. We also analyze existing dictionaries and perform various experiments to study the changes in word meanings and their comparative importance for speakers. We believe that, apart from the practical usage for our lexicographic project, our results might prove interesting for research in the evolution of the Russian lexical system. 

 
Added: Feb 13, 2014
Article
Чуланова Г. Ю. Известия высших учебных заведений. Технология легкой промышленности. 2014. Т. 24. № 2. С. 100-103.

The article discusses the use categorise clients on the market of the enterprises. Considered are the signs, which can be classified clients on B2B market.  

Added: Mar 12, 2015
Book chapter
Чадова И. Н. В кн.: «Нейронаука для медицины и психологии»: 9-й Международный Междисциплинарный Конгресс. Судак, Крым, Украина, 3-13 июня 2013 года.: Труды. М.: МАКС Пресс, 2013. С. 99-100.

One of the possible reasons of a shortage of data in literature on age change of neurodynamic parameters of women within reproductive stage ontogenesis is, against the background research of a leading age factor, ignoring influence of the OMC factor stage.

Added: Nov 13, 2019
Article
Горина О. Г. Вестник Ленинградского государственного университета имени А.С. Пушкина. Серия: Экономика. 2011. Т. 7. № 3. С. 27-36.

The article elaborates on composing and designing own corpora that would represent certain types of discourse, it also reviews implementation of available corpus software to identify a text or a genre specific key words, looks at corpus tools to identify and measure collocation strength using large national corpora.

Added: Feb 14, 2017