Each developing country tries to catch up with the developed world. Unfortunately, only few economies were able to reach this purpose during last sixty years. Well-known Gershenkonђs argument - «advantage of backwardness» - does not work properly in most cases [Gershenkon, 1962]. Though imitations of technologies and governance methods are much cheaper than innovations, the imitation process is also costly and requires sophisticated approaches of choosing and harmonizing different kinds of economic policies.
The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship of innovation potential and its main components with the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development in Russian regions. Based on international and Russian experience the regional innovation potential was evaluated using the multilevel approach. It includes the calculation of the partial sub-indices reflecting the innovation potential components in the regions (resources, infrastructure and effectiveness of innovation) as well as the composite index evaluation based on them. Principal components analysis of the variables characterizing small and medium-sized enterprises density in a region and these enterprises contribution to regional employment allows obtaining generalized characteristic of the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development. By the values of resource and effectiveness components of the innovation potential the typological groups of Russian regions were highlighted. The analysis reveals a significant moderate positive relationship between the level of small and medium-sized enterprises development (in particular, the groups of micro and small enterprises, medium-sized enterprises) and the composite index of innovative potential as well as sub-indices characterizing its components. For medium-sized enterprises this relationship with the resource and effectiveness components is higher because medium-sized enterprises are more involved in innovation activities. Currently, the contribution of small enterprises to innovative development of Russian regions is negligible, so the level of small entrepreneurship development depends mostly on regional infrastructure than on other aspects of innovation. Finally, practical recommendations were developed to stimulate entrepreneurial activity taking into account regional specificities.
Creative industries are one of the most important factors for sustainable economic development and a condition for higher-quality human capital. The brochure examines the concepts of creative industries that have been developed in different countries, analyzes the assessments of creative potential and competitiveness factors, using the data from the Index of Innovative Cities. Taking into account the growing global competition in the innovative economy, many countries have developed and adopted the state support programs for creative industries; in Russia, systemic support for the sector is be developed. The brochure analyzes the economic characteristics of the Russian creative sector, identifies the main effects of the coronavirus pandemic, and outlines the main areas for the state support of the creative sector.
Article gives a characteristics of workforce and examines principals and approaches to development of it s innovation in modern conditions.
The paper describes the main issues related to sustainable development of enterprises on the basis of innovation. The results of a research demonstrating the relationship between the position of the enterprise and organization innovation on it. The methodical recommendations on the design strategies of innovative development of the enterprise are proposed.
The article describes a new PRIM index for evaluating the innovative potential of the region. It briefly reviews the concept of building the PRIM index. Three sub-indices that constitute the PRIM index are characterized: an IRLA index (index of innovative regulatory legal acts), an OII index (index of objects of innovation infrastructure) and an ISM index (index of innovation support mechanisms) are characterized. The formula for calculating sub-indices is given. Three groups of respondents (representatives of business structures, innovation organizers and senior students) are characterized. The results of using the PRIM index in the Irkutsk region are presented. Graphs are given and the interpretation of the obtained results is provided.
A New Index for Evaluating Regional Innovation Capabilities called as PRIM Index is described. A Concept for Designing as well as a Model for an Index Calculating are presented. An PRIM Index was applied in Kirov Region. Scheme for Collecting and Treatment of Data gathered due to Survey of Innovators is described. Results of Calculation are given and interpreted.
Development of the russian energy sector seems to be rather promising (considering the speed and nature of the emergence of new technologies, such as digital power equipment, prognostic instruments, real-time payment techniques, etc.), however, there is no clear understanding of the potential demand level regarding specific technologies. frequently companies abandon research and development projects due to the uncertainty and risk of losing investments because of the absence of end-users. At the same time foreign suppliers of innovative solutions (including those for the energy sector) gain market power. Simultaneously, emerges the problem of strengthening competitiveness of the Russian federation regional economies in the view of tightening competition from foreign suppliers of innovative solutions including solutions for the energy sector.
Food industry plays a key role in each country. That is why the process of globalization makes the problem of ensuring safe production vary important, especially while attracting foreign capital. In this article the two mechanisms of the FDI distribution in Russian food industry companies are discussed. Special econometric tools for this analysis are also proposed. We investigate regional characteristics and the spatial lags (like factor of agglomeration, market potential and others) as determinants of the process. To test the influence of these determinants on the probability to have more than 10% of foreign capital in a company we estimate the hierarchical binary-choice models on a sample of Russian food industry companies (from RUSLANA database, on 2009). According to the results, the hierarchical diffusion of foreign investors is motivated by the seeking of local market and by seeking of the efficiency through lower transportation costs and better investment environment. The local resources in innovations are not significant on this level. When the investors develop new regions they take into account almost all the investigated regional characteristics. The logical complexification of a model allows not only to display the regional heterogeneity but also to determine the regions where the effect of some factors is irregular or more tangible. The development of transport infrastructure of the region and its spatial lag should be pointed out as one of the most substantial effects on the probability to have the FDI.