Electronics and Electrical Engineering
A GUIDE TO THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication offers a much needed guide to characterizing and overcoming the drawbacks associated with optical communication links that suffer from various types of fading when optical signals with information traverse these wireless (atmospheric) or wired (fiber optic) channels. The authors--noted experts on the topic--present material that aids in predicting the capacity, data rate, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate associated with a channel that experiences fading. They review modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems. The book also discusses how to model the channels, including treating distortion due to the various fading phenomena. Light waves and their similarity to radio waves are explored, and the way light propagates through the atmosphere, through materials, and through the boundary between two materials is explained. This important book: Characterizes principal optical sources and detectors, including descriptions of their advantages and disadvantages, to show how to design systems from start to finish Provides a new method of predicting and dealing with the dispersive properties of fiber optic cables and other optical guiding structures in order to increase data stream capacity Highlights effects of material and multimode (multi-ray) dispersion during propagation of optical signals with data through fiber optic channels Presents modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems Written for professionals dealing with optical and electro-optical communications, Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication explores the theory and practice of optical communication both when the optical signal is propagating through the atmosphere and when it is propagating through an optical fiber.
The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
The international scientific and engineering conference “Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications” has been held since 1974. For 46 years of work the conference has become a widely known forum for specialists of the field.
The papers which are discussed at the conference can be divided into the following chapters:
– Synchronization Systems and Devices;
– Signal Generating and Shaping Devices;
– Signal Processing Devices.
– Special chapter: “Problems of microwave electronics” them. V.A. Solntsev
The chapters content is concerned with fundamental problems of signal synchronization, generating and processing in the field of communications, broadcasting, radar, radio guidance and radio control. The questions of the practical issues are also including.
The presentations are made by the scientists and developers from 10 countries: Belarus, Azerbaijan, Germany, Kazakhstan, China, Lebanon, Mongolia, Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.
Branch Director of the IEEE Worldwide Limited in the Russian Federation and Scientific Secretary of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Roman Y. Ivanyushkin promotes this conference among the Engineers in the field of Telecommunications. He also organizes the work of conference Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Valentin Kuleshov is the Chairman of the Technical Program Committee.
Every year Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society are participate as co-Chairs of the Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of the Steering Committee Alexander Pestryakov (Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Radio and Broadcasting Faculty Dean of the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics) in cooperation with Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society appoints the conference committee chairs and other key members.
Conference will produce a publication.
in the present paper author explains the results of using Smart TV as a tool for Industry 4.0, in particular for media industry, also measuring of Quality-of-Service and new business development. A Smart TV is a single connected device or intelligent sensor which increases industry performance through the number of services by using the existing network infrastructure. Thanks to special tracking and analyzing information on board Smart TVs help to improve the service for VoD service provider and product quality for Vendor. Results of applying several methods for problem solving will be reviewed at present material
Proceedings. - Prague, April 23–24, 2019. IEEE Catalog Number: CFP19P59-CDR. ISBN: 978-1-5386-6524-4.
Copyright and Reprint Permission: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limit of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this volume that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For reprint or republication permission, email to IEEE Copyrights Manager at email@example.com. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2019 by IEEE.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
2019 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). Proceedings
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The main target of the East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS) is to exchange experiences between the scientists and technologies of the Eastern and Western Europe, as well as North America and other parts of the world, in the field of design, design automation and test of electronic systems. The symposium aims at attracting scientists especially from countries around the Black Sea, the Baltic states and Central Asia. We cordially invite you to participate and submit your contribution(s) to EWDTS’16 which covers (but is not limited to) the following topics:Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF Test Analysis and Optimization ATPG and High-Level TPG Automotive Reliability & Test Built-In Self Test Debug and Diagnosis Defect/Fault Tolerance and Reliability Design Verification and Validation EDA Tools for Design and Test Embedded Software Performance Failure Analysis, Defect and Fault Functional Safely High-level Synthesis High-Performance Networks and Systems on a Chip Internet of Things Design & Test Low-power Design Memory and Processor Test Modeling & Fault Simulation Network-on-Chip Design & Test Modeling and Synthesis of Embedded Systems Object-Oriented System Specification and Design On-Line Testing Power Issues in Design & Test Real Time Embedded Systems Reliability of Digital Systems Scan-Based Techniques Self-Repair and Reconfigurable Architectures Signal and Information Processing in Radio and Communication Engineering System Level Modeling, Simulation & Test Generation System-in-Package and 3D Design & Test Using UML for Embedded System Specification Optical signals in communication and Information Processing CAD and EDA Tools, Methods and Algorithms Hardware Security and Design for Security Logic, Schematic and System Synthesis Place and Route Thermal and Electrostatic Analysis of SoCs Wireless and RFID Systems Synthesis
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The 18th International Vacuum Electronics Conference (IVEC 2017) helded on 24-26 April 2017 in London, UK. With technical co-sponsorship from the IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS), the conference provide a forum for scientists and engineers from around the globe to present the latest developments in vacuum electronics technology at frequencies ranging from the UHF to THz frequency bands. IVEC was originally created in 2000 by merging the U.S. Power Tubes Conferences and the European Space Agency TWTA Workshops. Now a fully international conference, IVEC is held every other year in the U.S., and in Europe and Asia alternately every fourth year.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The Conference is focused on the actual problems in the field of Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (Navigation and Information Systems, Information Security Systems and Computer Security, Transport Security Management, Information and Communication Technologies in Education, Scientific Research and Economy, Automation of Business Processes, Automated Systems of Control and Quality Management, Quality Management Systems including Integrated Systems of Quality Management of Information Systems (Implementation, Certification, Auditing), Engineering Management, IT Service Management, Management of Projects and Risks as well as other issues related to the field). Previous Conferences on these topics revealed great interest of both Russian and foreign researchers in this issues. Organizing and hosting the 2016 IEEE Conference on Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT&MQ&IS) in Russia is of great value for exchange of research ideas and practical results in this field, for discovering new problems and development trends, for development of new effective practical methods and tools targeted on solving complex practical problems. During the IT&MQ&IS 2016 Conference sessions, it is expected and planned to discuss a wide range of issues, both of theoretical and practical value. One of the key Conference aims is also attracting young researchers and practitioners to discussions and exchange of ideas with the professional community.
The 12th Siberian conference SIBCON-2016, the oldest conference of IEEE in Siberia, aims to offer opportunities to learn and to share information on the latest advances in communications, electron devices, and control systems.
This book constitutes the joint refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Next Generation Wired/Wireless Advanced Networks and Systems, NEW2AN 2015, and the 8th Conference on Internet of Things and Smart Spaces, ruSMART 2015, held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in August 2015. The 74 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The 15 papers selected for ruSMART are organized in topical sections on IoT infrastructure, IoT platforms, smart spaces and IoT cases, and smart services and solutions. The 59 papers from NEW2AN deal with the following topics: streaming, video, and TCP applications, mobile "ad hoc" networks, security, and clouds, sensor networks and IoT, cellular systems, novel systems and techniques, business and services, signals and circuits, optical and satellite systems, and advanced materials and their properties.
One-way delay (OWD) is the transmission time of the network packet from the first to the last bit from the sender node to the receiver node. The data set presented here was obtained as a result of measurements performed for the paper “Improving the Accuracy of One-Way Delay Measurements”.
One-way delay measurements were performed using three different utilities:
* the utility from the OWAMP protocol;
* first version of our utility, owping1; and
* the new version of our utility, owping2.
These measurement utilities differ critically in the way that they set timestamps. The first generation of utilities (OWAMP and owping1) set the time stamp arbitrarily during the assembly of the measurement package and later during its interpretation after being received. Thus, the processing time on the measuring device is added to the delay value.
The new version of the utility for setting timestamps uses the capabilities that were provided for in the Linux kernel, starting with version 2.6.30. In this and later versions of the kernel the SO_TIMESTAMPING socket option was added, which enables the interrogation of information, from the OS kernel, about the times at which packets are sent and received. Timestamps set/obtained in this way are the most accurate, since the OS kernel sets/interrogates them directly at the time of the physical sending or receiving of packets. Thus, the uncertainty associated with the time interval, associated with the assembly and subsequent interpretation of the packet, has been eliminated.
Prompt development of information technology has made an essential impact on many industries. There appeared a concept “Industry 4.0” symbolizing the fourth industrial revolution. The given concept is closely connected with such promising technologies as the Internet of Things, blockchain, fog computing, Big Data. In the present research, the sphere of the mining industry is examined. We discuss the possibility to increase the efficiency of mining enterprises at the expense of the development of common information space based on modern digital technologies. We analyze security problems at the level of data flow between the participants of the production process on a mining enterprise. We define the problem of providing the reliability of data on the production course on mining enterprise in the conditions of the possible connection loss between the control center and separate technological units. We offer a new approach to the solution of the given problems, based on the technology of blockchain and digital watermarking. The computing experiment is conducted presenting a possibility to implement the offered approaches on common models of microcontrollers.
The problem of thermal modeling of modern three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) systems in packages (SiPs) is discussed. An effective quasi-3D (Q3D) approach of thermal design is proposed taking into account the specific character of 3D IC stacked multilayer constructions. The fully-3D heat transfer equation for global multilayer construction is reduced to the set of coupled two-dimensional (2D) equations for separate construction layers. As a result, computational difficulties, processor time, and RAM volume are significantly reduced, while accuracy can be provided. A software tool, Overheat-3D-IC, was developed on the base of the generalized Q3D package numerical model. For the first time, the global 3D thermal performances across the modern integrated circuit/through-silicon via/ball grid array (IC-TSV-BGA) and multi-chip (MC)-embedded printed circuit board (PCB) packages were simulated. A ten times decrease of central processing unit (CPU) time was achieved as compared with the 3D solutions obtained by commercial universal 3D simulators, while saving the sufficient accuracy. The simulation error of maximal temperature TMAX determination for different types of packages was not more than 10–20%. View Full-Text
An InAs/InGaAs quantum dot laser with a heterostructure epitaxially grown on a silicon substrate was used to fabricate injection microdisk lasers of different diameters (15–31 µm). A post-growth process includes photolithography and deep dry etching. No surface protection/passivation is applied. The microlasers are capable of operating heatsink-free in a continuous-wave regime at room and elevated temperatures. A record-low threshold current density of 0.36 kA/cm2 was achieved in 31 µm diameter microdisks operating uncooled. In microlasers with a diameter of 15 µm, the minimum threshold current density was found to be 0.68 kA/cm2. Thermal resistance of microdisk lasers monolithically grown on silicon agrees well with that of microdisks on GaAs substrates. The ageing test performed for microdisk lasers on silicon during 1000 h at a constant current revealed that the output power dropped by only ~9%. A preliminary estimate of the lifetime for quantum-dot (QD) microlasers on silicon (defined by a double drop of the power) is 83,000 h. Quantum dot microdisk lasers made of a heterostructure grown on GaAs were transferred onto a silicon wafer using indium bonding. Microlasers have a joint electrical contact over a residual n+ GaAs substrate, whereas their individual addressing is achieved by placing them down on a p-contact to separate contact pads. These microdisks hybridly integrated to silicon laser at room temperature in a continuous-wave mode. No effect of non-native substrate on device characteristics was found.
In the next few years, a large-scale project on implementation of an intelligent system for electric power metering should be carried out in Russia. The replacement of electric meters for individual customers is a necessary part of this project. The number of people needed to carry out the project within the specified period has to be found. It should be taken into account than electric meters, like any electrical equipment, are subject to failure. If a system for their prompt restoration is not developed, the incorporation of an intelligent system of electric power metering will have no effect. The classical queuing analysis based on calculation of the probabilities of a system being in different states can hardly be used because of the problem’s dimensionality. Methods of simulation describe specific cases. They do not provide solution of the problem without analytically determined approximations of the number of people needed. This paper considers the solution of the problem of determining the number of personnel needed for the program of replacing electric meters to be done in proper time, taking into account the that they need to be restored promptly. The solution has been obtained based on the simulations of the incorporation of an intelligent system of electric power metering using the method of average dynamics. An example of calculations of the necessary number of employees in MathCAD PRIME 4.0 has been considered. The suggested method provides almost exact results because of the large number of replaced electric meters.
Compact Si JFET model for SPICE circuit simulation in the extended temperature range from 373 K down to 73 K (+100 °C…−200 °C) is proposed. It is based on the standard JFET model Level = 3 (Statz model) with the full set of temperature-dependent parameters in the cryogenic temperature range. The universal procedure for model parameter extraction from I-V-characteristic measurement data at low temperature is developed. The simulation error does not exceed 10–15% in the temperature range 373 K…73 K. The JFET Low-T model is implemented in the form of a subcircuit and tested in popular SPICE-like circuit simulators: HSPICE, LTSpice, ADS, and OrCAD.
. This paper presents a novel rodent avoidance test. We have devel-oped a specialized device and procedures that expand the possibilities for exploration of the processes of learning and memory in a psychophysiological experiment. The device consists of a current stimulating electrode-platform and custom software that allows to control and record real-time experimental pro-tocols as well as reconstructs animal movement paths. The device can be used to carry out typical footshock-avoidance tests, such as passive, active, modified active and pedal-press avoidance tasks. It can also be utilized in the studies of prosocial behavior, including cooperation, competition, emotional contagion and empathy. This novel footshock-avoidance test procedure allows flexible current-stimulating settings. In our work, we have used slow-rising current. A test animal can choose between the current rise and time-out intervals as a signal for action in footshock avoidable tasks. This represents a choice between escape and avoid-ance. This method can be used to explore individual differences in decision-making and choice of avoidance strategies. It has been shown previously that a behavioral act, for example, pedal-pressing is ensured by motivation-dependent brain activity (avoidance or approach). We have created an experimental design based on tasks of instrumental learning: pedal-pressing in an operant box results in a reward, which is either a piece of food in a feeder (food-acquisition behavior) or an escape-platform (footshock-avoidance behavior). Data recording and analysis were performed using custom software, the open source Accord.NET Framework was used for real-time object detection and tracking.
Nowadays the abundance of IoT devices has the potential of changing our lives dramatically, but brings new routing and traffic orchestration challenges for the next-generation Internet providers: core routers are already overwhelmed, see e.g, the routing table size growth problem. Although some researchers still argue whether or not the next-generation networks should feature scale-free properties, recent results have shown benefits of embedding such scale-free networks in a hyperbolic space of negative curvature. Specifically, this allows geometrically route packets by using only a local topology knowledge (i.e., with average O∗(1) space–time complexity) at no extra communication overhead (i.e., without routing protocols). To our knowledge, however, there is no Traffic Engineering (TE) protocol with the aforementioned properties that can be used in dynamic scale-free networks. In this paper, we propose the first to our knowledge REpulsive-BAsed Traffic Engineering (REBATE) protocol for dynamic scale-free networks. REBATE is built upon dual principles of the demand-aware TE and fundamentals properties of hyperbolic spaces. Using trace-driven numerical simulations, we then show how REBATE can reduce the maximum link utilization up to 25% when compared to a common geometric routing-based traffic steering. Although REBATE can perform worse than common demands-aware and oblivious TE approaches, we think that our work should pave the way for more efficient TE in the next-generation dynamic scale-free networks.
We present the sensor with a sensitive element (SE) based on coupled radial spirals, which can be used for monitoring technological processes in the Electronic Industry, as well as for detecting damages on the pipelines under protective coatings. The main properties and characteristics of such SE are analyzed and measured. It is shown that the concentration of the electromagnetic field in a measuring space, caused by slowing down of the the wave, and splitting of the electric and magnetic fields leads to a significant increase in sensitivity, whereas the multiple increases in the slowdown makes it possible to use the advantages of SE with distributed parameters at relatively low operating frequencies. The practical realization of the described sensor is demonstrated in measuring the ion implantation processes and the thickness of the metallization, as well as in monitoring the invisible cracks and damages through the protective coats on the metal surfaces.