Engineering and Technology
The economies of Central and Eastern Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia (CEECCA) grew at a varying pace in 2000–2019, with an average rate of 6.5 percent per annum (GDP, PPP). This economic progress was accompanied by some positive changes in environmental performance, but not in all areas and not in all countries in the region.
Proceedings of the SPIE PHOTONICS EUROPE Conference on Biophotonics in Point-of-Care, 6-10 April 2020, Online Only, France. Proc. SPIE volume 11361
The main target of the IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS) is to exchange experiences between scientists and technologies from Eastern and Western Europe, as well as North America and other parts of the world, in the field of design, design automation and test of electronic circuits and systems. The symposium is typically held in countries around East Europe, the Black Sea, the Balkans and Central Asia region. We cordially invite you to participate and submit your contributions to EWDTS 2020 which covers (but is not limited to) the following topics. • Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF Test • ATPG and High-Level TPG • Automotive Reliability & Test • Built-In Self Test • Debug and Diagnosis • Defect/Fault Tolerance and Reliability • Design Verification and Validation • EDA Tools for Design and Test • Embedded Software • Failure Analysis & Fault Modeling • Functional Safely • High-level Synthesis • High-Performance Networks and Systems on a Chip • Internet of Things Design & Test • Low-power Design • Memory and Processor Test • Modeling & Fault Simulation • Network-on-Chip Design & Test • Flexible and Printed Electronics • Applied Electronics Automotive/Mechatronics • Algorithms • Object-Oriented System Specification and Design • On-Line Testing • Power Issues in Design & Test • Real Time Embedded Systems • Reliability of Digital Systems • Scan-Based Techniques • Self-Repair and Reconfigurable Architectures • Signal and Information Processing in Radio and Communication Engineering • System Level Modeling, Simulation & Test Generation • System-in-Package and 3D Design & Test • Using UML for Embedded System Specification • Optical signals in communication and Information Processing • CAD and EDA Tools, Methods and Algorithms • Hardware Security and Design for Security • Logic, Schematic and System Synthesis • Place and Route • Thermal and Electrostatic Analysis of SoCs • Wireless and RFID Systems Synthesis • Sensors and Transducers • Medical Electronics • Design of Integrated Passive Components
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
A GUIDE TO THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication offers a much needed guide to characterizing and overcoming the drawbacks associated with optical communication links that suffer from various types of fading when optical signals with information traverse these wireless (atmospheric) or wired (fiber optic) channels. The authors--noted experts on the topic--present material that aids in predicting the capacity, data rate, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate associated with a channel that experiences fading. They review modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems. The book also discusses how to model the channels, including treating distortion due to the various fading phenomena. Light waves and their similarity to radio waves are explored, and the way light propagates through the atmosphere, through materials, and through the boundary between two materials is explained. This important book: Characterizes principal optical sources and detectors, including descriptions of their advantages and disadvantages, to show how to design systems from start to finish Provides a new method of predicting and dealing with the dispersive properties of fiber optic cables and other optical guiding structures in order to increase data stream capacity Highlights effects of material and multimode (multi-ray) dispersion during propagation of optical signals with data through fiber optic channels Presents modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems Written for professionals dealing with optical and electro-optical communications, Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication explores the theory and practice of optical communication both when the optical signal is propagating through the atmosphere and when it is propagating through an optical fiber.
Understanding the connections between climate change policies and sustainable development is critically important for the implementation of the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Well-designed climate mitigation policy can lead to significant co-benefits for a range of development priorities, including enhanced energy security and safety and reduced indoor air pollution; however, if not properly managed, mitigation can also lead to trade-offs. Maximizing synergies and avoiding trade-offs thus requires an integrated strategy based on a new generation of technological and socio-economic pathways that includes climate-resilient adaptation strategies. Over the last four years, CD-LINKS brought together an international team of interdisciplinary researchers with both global and national expertise. Funded by the Horizon 2020 programme of the European Union, the project applied cutting-edge scientific tools and models to explore the linkages between climate policies and sustainable development. Major achievements of the project include the development of globally consistent national low-carbon development pathways, and the formation of a research network and capacity building platform to leverage knowledge exchange among institutions. The project also improved understanding of the linkages between climate change policies and multiple sustainable development objectives and greatly enhanced the existing evidence base on policy effectiveness. A particular asset of the project are the insights related to policy designs that adequately account for mitigation trade-offs across sectors, actors, and objectives. We invite you to learn more about this ground-breaking work in the pages that follow.
Cancer cells require exogenous methionine for survival and therefore methionine restriction is a promising avenue for treatment. The basis for methionine dependence in cancer cells is still not entirely clear. While the lack of the methionine salvage enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is associated with methionine auxotrophy in cancer cells, there are other causes for tumors to require exogenous methionine. Restricting methionine by diet or by enzyme depletion, alone or in combination with certain chemotherapeutics, is a promising antitumor strategy.
The paper provides findings of the research work and scientific discussions under the “Global Sustainability Strategy Forum” (GSSF) that aims to develop evidence-informed judgments on challenges and solutions. It views attaining sustainability as a set of closely-coupled societal and environmental challenges and opportunities that require integration of multiple disciplines, new research methods, and new knowledge sources with sensitivity to regional and cultural diversities. The project is designed to produce innovative insights and strategies to support effective governance of transitions to sustainability of our complex global social-ecological system within its inherent resource limitations, and to develop sustainable lifestyles that are practical and appealing in the different regions and cultures of the world.
The global climate change is one of the most dangerous threats to human society in the 21st Century. The dramatic losses have already been observed, and the risks are rising over time. CEECCA region experiences many negative impacts of global warming, which is faster and stronger than the world average. Numerous adaptation and resilience measures are required to protect people, but regional governments often underestimate and ignore the social implications of climate policies.This paper explores what are the priority challenges for CEECCA countries and how to address them effectively.
The IEEE Russia North West Section and the European Centre for Quality (Moscow) are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT&QM&IS). The Conference was held in Sochy, Russia on September 23–2, 2019. The Organizing Committee believes and trusts that we have been true to the spirit of collegiality that members of IEEE value whilst also maintaining a high standard as we reviewed papers, provided feedback and now present a strong body of published work in this collection of proceedings. The themes for this year's conference were chosen as a means of bringing together academics and industrialists, engineering and management research, manufacturing and teaching, and providing a basis for discussion of issues arising across the engineering and business community in relation to Quality Management, Information Technologies, Transport and Information Security aimed at developing engineers and managers for the future. The goal of these proceedings has been to present high quality work in an accessible medium, for use in a wide community of academics, engineers, managers, and industrialists, the community united by the key words Science, Education, Quality, Innovations in engineering. To achieve this aim, all abstracts were blind reviewed, and full papers submitted for publication in this journal of proceedings were subjected to a rigorous reviewing process.
The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master's and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.
The international scientific and engineering conference “Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications” has been held since 1974. For 46 years of work the conference has become a widely known forum for specialists of the field.
The papers which are discussed at the conference can be divided into the following chapters:
– Synchronization Systems and Devices;
– Signal Generating and Shaping Devices;
– Signal Processing Devices.
– Special chapter: “Problems of microwave electronics” them. V.A. Solntsev
The chapters content is concerned with fundamental problems of signal synchronization, generating and processing in the field of communications, broadcasting, radar, radio guidance and radio control. The questions of the practical issues are also including.
The presentations are made by the scientists and developers from 10 countries: Belarus, Azerbaijan, Germany, Kazakhstan, China, Lebanon, Mongolia, Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.
Branch Director of the IEEE Worldwide Limited in the Russian Federation and Scientific Secretary of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Roman Y. Ivanyushkin promotes this conference among the Engineers in the field of Telecommunications. He also organizes the work of conference Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Valentin Kuleshov is the Chairman of the Technical Program Committee.
Every year Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society are participate as co-Chairs of the Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of the Steering Committee Alexander Pestryakov (Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Radio and Broadcasting Faculty Dean of the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics) in cooperation with Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society appoints the conference committee chairs and other key members.
Conference will produce a publication.
Proceedings. - Prague, April 23–24, 2019. IEEE Catalog Number: CFP19P59-CDR. ISBN: 978-1-5386-6524-4.
Copyright and Reprint Permission: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limit of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this volume that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For reprint or republication permission, email to IEEE Copyrights Manager at email@example.com. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2019 by IEEE.
Superconducting properties of metallic nanowires may strongly depend on specific experimental conditions. Here we consider a setup where superconducting phase fluctuations are restricted at one point inside the wire and equilibrium supercurrent flows along the wire segment of an arbitrary length L. Low-temperature physics of this structure is essentially determined, on one hand, by smooth phase fluctuations and, on the other hand, by quantum phase slips. The zero temperature phase diagram is controlled by the wire cross section and consists of a truly superconducting phase and two different phases where superconductivity can be observed only at shorter length scales. One of the latter phases exhibits more robust short-scale superconductivity whereas another one demonstrates a power-law decay of the supercurrent with increasing L already at relatively short scales.
In pnictide RbEuFe4As4, superconductivity sets in at 36 K and coexists, below 15−19 K, with the long-range magnetic ordering of Eu 4f spins. Here we report scanning tunneling experiments performed on cold-cleaved single crystals of the compound. The data revealed the coexistence of large Rb-terminated and small Eu-terminated terraces, both manifesting 1 × 2 and \sqrt 2 × \sqrt 2 reconstructions. On \sqrt 2 × \sqrt 2 surfaces, a hidden electronic order with a period ∼5 nm was discovered. A superconducting gap of ∼7 meV was seen to be strongly filled with quasiparticle states. The tunneling spectra compared with density functional theory calculations confirmed that flat electronic bands due to Eu 4f orbitals are situated ∼1.8eV below the Fermi level and thus do not contribute directly to Cooper pair formation.
Single crystals of Pr3+ doped hexa-aluminate Sr0.7La0.3Mg0.3Al12O19 (ASL) were prepared for spectroscopic characterization. We investigated their optical spectroscopic properties in σ and π polarization of light. Absorption spectra were recorded in extended spectral range, 400 nm–5400 nm. Energies of Pr3+ crystal field states were determined. In addition to the major D3h sites, minor sites were found. Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed: the J-O parameters Ωt were determined to be 1.06 x 10^-20 cm-2, 2.31 x 10^-20 cm-2 and 3.43 x 10^-20 cm-2 for t = 2, 4 and 6, respectively. The radiative lifetime was 38 μs for the emitting state 3P0.
We have studied high-resolution low-temperature IR luminescence and absorption spectra of undoped high-quality SiC single crystals of the 4H and 6H hexagonal modifications. Narrow lines with a width of smaller than 0.2 cm–1 have been revealed, with some of which being observed for the first time. We have found that some of the lines in the 4H and 6H modifications have similar structures; however, the lines in SiC-4H are shifted to the high-energy part of the spectrum by ~180 cm–1. For the most intense quartet in the range of 1.3 μm, we have succeeded in constructing the energy structure of levels for both the 4H modification and the 6H modification based on their luminescence and absorption spectra.
Single NV centers in HPHT IIa diamond are fabricated by helium implantation through lithographic masks. The concentrations of created NV centers in different growth sectors of HPHT are compared quantitatively. It is shown that the purest f001g growth sector (GS) of HPHT diamond allows to create groups of single NV centers in predetermined locations. The f001g GS HPHT diamond is thus considered a good material for applications that involve single NV centers.
Recent theoretical studies predict the suppressed ferroelectric instability in orthorhombic Pnma perovskites and experimental evidence is due. We observed significant softening at cooling of the lowest-frequency polar phonon at the Brillouin zone center in the Pnma antiferromagnetic fluoroperovskite NaMnF3 that is the direct proof of the theoretically predicted ferroelectric instability. In contrast to oxides where the hybridization plays the dominant role, the effective ionic charges in fluoroperovskites are close to their nominal valencies that confirms the geometric origin of the observed incipient ferroelectricity. Furthermore, below the Néel temperature, the softening phonon clearly shows a strong coupling with the magnetic subsystem as a result of dynamical modulation of the superexchange interaction. Our findings clarify microscopic mechanisms of the incipient multiferroicity in the Pnma fluoroperovskites and reveal still unexplored opportunities of this class of materials for further research and potential applications.
In “Lattice dynamics and structure of the new langasites Ln3CrGe3Be2O14 (Ln ¼ La, Pr, Nd): vibrational spectra and ab initio calculations” , experimental and calculated results on lattice dynamics of the recently discovered new compounds La3CrGe3- Be2O14, Pr3CrGe3Be2O14, and Nd3CrGe3Be2O14 are reported. These compounds belong to the langasite series and constitute a new class of low-dimensional antiferromagnets. The data presented in this article includes IR diffuse transmission spectra of powder samples of Ln3CrGe3Be2O14 (Ln ¼ La, Pr, Nd) registered at room temperature with a Bruker 125HR Fourier spectrometer, Raman spectra taken in the backscattering geometry (also at room temperature) with a triple monochromator using the line 514, 5 nm of an argon laser as an excitation, results of the DFT calculations with the B3LYP and PBE0 hybrid functionals on the optimized crystal structures, eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors of the normal vibrational modes. These data can be used to analyse electronphonon interaction and multiferroic properties of the new langasites and to compare the lattice dynamics of different langasites.
The kinetics of the electronic transitions within the f -shell of Dy3+ ions were studied with monitoring near- and mid-IR luminescence decay under pulsed laser excitation at 1.3 μm. The luminescence decay curves were found to be profoundly non-exponential in all bands in the range between 1.3-5.5 μm. Such behavior is attributed to cross-relaxation and up-conversion processes dominating in relaxation of Dy3+ ions from the laser-excited multiplet 6H9-2+6F11-2. We suggest that strong collective phenomena occurring under relatively low concentrations are due to anomalous clustering of Dy3+ ions. The cross-relaxation enables an efficient population of 6H13-2 and 6H11-2 multiplets, offering this material as an active medium for a 3-μm and 4.3-μm lasers.
The design problems of robust static controllers for discrete-time systems with norm- bounded parametric uncertainties and random input disturbances are considered. The con- trollers under consideration stabilize the plant for all possible values of uncertainty from a given set of parameters and also guarantee a desired suppression level for random exogenous disturbances. A numerical example is given.