Engineering and Technology
Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master's and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.
in the present paper author explains the results of using Smart TV as a tool for Industry 4.0, in particular for media industry, also measuring of Quality-of-Service and new business development. A Smart TV is a single connected device or intelligent sensor which increases industry performance through the number of services by using the existing network infrastructure. Thanks to special tracking and analyzing information on board Smart TVs help to improve the service for VoD service provider and product quality for Vendor. Results of applying several methods for problem solving will be reviewed at present material
Proceedings. - Prague, April 23–24, 2019. IEEE Catalog Number: CFP19P59-CDR. ISBN: 978-1-5386-6524-4.
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The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
2019 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). Proceedings
The 29th DAAAM International Symposium on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation took place in Zadar, Croatia between the 24th and 27th October 2018, during the DAAAM International Week. The Symposium was organized by DAAAM International Vienna in cooperation with ÖIAV 1848, Vienna University of Technology, International Academy of Engineering and University of Applied Sciences – Technikum Wien and Under the Auspices of the Danube Rectors’ Conference & Rectors’ and Presidents’ Honor Committee of DAAAM International for 2018. The Symposium took place in Zadar, Croatia. This year’s symposium aimed at continuing the success of the previous years, focusing on the five-fold traditional objectives of the symposium: the presentation of the most recent high-quality results, support of development of young scientists and researchers, organization of international (summer) doctoral school, inauguration of new members of Central European Branch of International Academy of Engineering and the provision of the necessary setting for stimulating discussions, brainstorming and networking among European and international researchers coming both from the academia government agencies and industry.
The IEEE Russia North West Section, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, and the European Centre for Quality (Moscow) are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT&QM&IS). The Conference was held in St. Petersburg, Russia on September 24–29, 2018, and it was proudly hosted by Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”. The Organizing Committee believes and trusts that we have been true to the spirit of collegiality that members of IEEE value whilst also maintaining a high standard as we reviewed papers, provided feedback and now present a strong body of published work in this collection of proceedings. The themes for this year's conference were chosen as a means of bringing together academics and industrialists, engineering and management research, manufacturing and teaching, and providing a basis for discussion of issues arising across the engineering and business community in relation to Quality Management, Information Technologies, Transport and Information Security aimed at developing engineers and managers for the future. The goal of these proceedings has been to present high quality work in an accessible medium, for use in a wide community of academics, engineers, managers, and industrialists, the community united by the key words Science, Education, Quality, Innovations in engineering. To achieve this aim, all abstracts were blind reviewed, and full papers submitted for publication in this journal of proceedings were subjected to a rigorous reviewing process.
This volume offers profound analyses of the main theoretical and practical aspects of the concept of sustainable development: namely, current environmental problems; the building of green economies; climate policies; specifics of international cooperation in the sphere of sustainable development; specific features of business and government involvement in implementing sustainable development; the role of civil society; its social and gender aspects; and specific characteristics of national models of sustainable development. The focus on the international aspects of the implementation of sustainable development ideas makes the insights offered here fresh and unique.
The research on technical regulations and standards highlights that the EAEU is already implementing many EU standards as the basis for reforming and modernizing its former GOST regulations and standards. In addition the EAEU is adopting many standards of the international standards organizations (ISO, IEC, ITU), which work very closely in partnership with the European standards organizations (CEN, CENELEC, ETSI), such that international and European standards are to a large degree identical. This means that the legal and technical infrastructure for non-tariff barriers of the two parties is already converging. This makes non-tariff barriers a potentially fertile field for cooperation between the EU and EAEU, which in turn could mean easier access to markets and increased mutual trade. In this case, the potential format and extent of cooperation could extend to include a Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) on Conformity Assessment, through to the most ambitious formula (in EU practice) of the Agreement on Conformity Assessment and Acceptance of Industrial Products (ACAA). Such arrangements would in principle ideally form part of a free trade agreement. Such scenarios can be technically specified, but of course they would have to rely on demanding political conditions which today are not satisfied.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
This book examines how Russia, the world’s most complicated country, is governed. As it resumes its place at the centre of global affairs, the book explores Russia’s overarching strategies, and how it organizes itself (or not) in policy areas ranging from foreign policy and national security to health care, education, immigration, science, sport, agriculture, the environment and criminal justice. The book also discusses the structures and institutions on which Russia relies in order to deliver its goals in these areas of national life, as well as what’s to be done, in policy terms, to improve the country’s performance in its first post-Soviet century. Edited by Irvin Studin, the book includes contributions from a tremendous list of Russia’s leading thinkers and specialists, including Alexei Kudrin, Vladimir Mau, Alexander Auzan, Simon Kordonsky, Fyodor Lukyanov, Natalia Zubarevich and Andrey Melville.
Global warming is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges for human society in the 21st century. The international community has agreed to undertake necessary actions to prevent dangerous anthropogenic impacts on the climatic system. Based on the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014), the UNFCCC Parties adopted the Paris Agreement aimed at limiting the global mean surface temperature rise by “well below 2 degrees Celsius”. Such an ambitious “climatic” target requires unprecedented efforts to reduce carbon emissions to almost zero worldwide this century. Moreover, in order to keep the warming below 1.5°C, the global total emissions must be reduced by 50% or more by 2050 (compared to current levels) and reach net-zero levels afterwards. In practical terms, it means that most of the countries should deeply decarbonize their economies, energy systems, industries, transport, buildings, products and services, while continuing growth of GDP and the standard of living of the population. The developed countries agreed to take the lead in climate change mitigation under the UNFCCC; however, the largest developing countries and emerging economies have started playing substantial roles in carbon emissions nowadays. In this decade, China became the world No.1 CO2 emitter overcoming the United States. The Northeast Asian (NEA) region, including China, Japan, Mongolia, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, and the Russian Federation, is responsible for annual emissions of over 12.4 billion tonnes of CO2 or approximately 40% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. These countries are huge contributors to global warming today and may increase their share further. The traditional way of combusting the huge fossil fuels reserves (coal, gas, and oil) available in the Northeast Asian region would emit greenhouse gases substantially exceeding the amounts that would warm the planet by 2°C. On the other hand, plentiful sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydro, tidal, and biomass, etc.) in combination with advanced technologies, investments, and land infrastructure developments can transform the Northeast Asian countries into decarbonized, climate- and environment-friendly economies with sustainable growth and development, fully consistent with the goals and commitments under the Paris Climate Agreement. Delays with the deep decarbonization of the Northeast Asian economies will impose higher risks for communities and life-supporting ecosystems, more losses and stranded assets for businesses, and slower technological progress worldwide. The analysis of challenges and opportunities in deep decarbonization pathways for the Northeast Asian region as a whole is presented in this publication. We raise many questions, and yet have not so many answers. By publishing this text, we want to invite all interested and concerned parties to start thinking about and debating these new, but very up-to-date issues of deep transformation of our economies, industries, consumer behavior, and ways of living in climate-neutral patterns, in order that we can urgently meet the need to save our planet and keep it in good shape for the generations to come.
Session 1. The uncertainty in the measurements and calculations. Probabilistic methods in the processing of information. The Bayesian approach Session 2. Systems simulation. Complex objects control in the condition of uncertainty Session 3. Neurocomputing networks, genetic algorithms and their applications Session 4. Methods and tools for the design of expert systems and decision support systems Session 5. Intelligent measurements systems. New approaches in measurements: intellectual, soft and fuzzy measurements Session 6. Environmental information systems Session 7. Application of decision support systems in the economy and the social sphere
The main target of the East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS) is to exchange experiences between the scientists and technologies of the Eastern and Western Europe, as well as North America and other parts of the world, in the field of design, design automation and test of electronic systems. The symposium aims at attracting scientists especially from countries around the Black Sea, the Baltic states and Central Asia. We cordially invite you to participate and submit your contribution(s) to EWDTS’16 which covers (but is not limited to) the following topics:Analog, Mixed-Signal and RF Test Analysis and Optimization ATPG and High-Level TPG Automotive Reliability & Test Built-In Self Test Debug and Diagnosis Defect/Fault Tolerance and Reliability Design Verification and Validation EDA Tools for Design and Test Embedded Software Performance Failure Analysis, Defect and Fault Functional Safely High-level Synthesis High-Performance Networks and Systems on a Chip Internet of Things Design & Test Low-power Design Memory and Processor Test Modeling & Fault Simulation Network-on-Chip Design & Test Modeling and Synthesis of Embedded Systems Object-Oriented System Specification and Design On-Line Testing Power Issues in Design & Test Real Time Embedded Systems Reliability of Digital Systems Scan-Based Techniques Self-Repair and Reconfigurable Architectures Signal and Information Processing in Radio and Communication Engineering System Level Modeling, Simulation & Test Generation System-in-Package and 3D Design & Test Using UML for Embedded System Specification Optical signals in communication and Information Processing CAD and EDA Tools, Methods and Algorithms Hardware Security and Design for Security Logic, Schematic and System Synthesis Place and Route Thermal and Electrostatic Analysis of SoCs Wireless and RFID Systems Synthesis
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies.
It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
The 18th International Vacuum Electronics Conference (IVEC 2017) helded on 24-26 April 2017 in London, UK. With technical co-sponsorship from the IEEE Electron Devices Society (EDS), the conference provide a forum for scientists and engineers from around the globe to present the latest developments in vacuum electronics technology at frequencies ranging from the UHF to THz frequency bands. IVEC was originally created in 2000 by merging the U.S. Power Tubes Conferences and the European Space Agency TWTA Workshops. Now a fully international conference, IVEC is held every other year in the U.S., and in Europe and Asia alternately every fourth year.
The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
In this paper, we formulate a field-theoretical model of dilute salt solutions of electrically neutral spherical colloid particles. Each colloid particle consists of a 'central' charge that is situated at the center and compensating peripheral charges (grafted to it) that are fixed or fluctuating relative to the central charge. In the framework of the random phase approximation, we obtain a general expression for electrostatic free energy of solution and analyze it for different limiting cases. In the limit of infinite number of peripheral charges, when they can be modelled as a continual charged cloud, we obtain an asymptotic behavior of the electrostatic potential of a point-like test charge in a salt colloid solution at long distances, demonstrating the crossover from its monotonic decrease to damped oscillations with a certain wavelength. We show that the obtained crossover is determined by certain Fisher-Widom line. For the same limiting case, we obtain an analytical expression for the electrostatic free energy of a salt-free solution. In the case of nonzero salt concentration, we obtain analytical relations for the electrostatic free energy in two limiting regimes. Namely, when the ionic concentration is much higher than the colloid concentration and the effective size of charge cloud is much bigger than the screening lengths that are attributed to the salt ions and the central charges of colloid particles. The proposed theory could be useful for theoretical description of the phase behavior of salt solutions of metal-organic complexes and polymeric stars.
The swelling of a poly (methyl methacrylate) in supercritical carbon dioxide was studied by means of full atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulation. In order to characterize the polymer swelling, we calculated various properties related to the density, structure, and dynamics of polymer chains as a function of the simulation time, temperature, and pressure. In addition, we compared the properties of the macromolecular chains in supercritical CO2 with the properties of the corresponding bulk system at the same temperature and atmospheric pressure. It was shown that diffusion of CO2 molecules into the polymer led to a significant increase in the chain mobility and distances between them. Analysis of diffusion coefficients of CO2 molecules inside and outside the poly(methyl methacrylate) sample has shown that carbon dioxide actively interacts with the functional groups of poly (methyl methacrylate). Joint analysis of the radial distribution functions obtained from classical molecular dynamics and of the averaging interatomic distances from Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics allows us to make a conclusion about the possibility of formation of weak hydrogen bonds between the carbon dioxide oxygen atom and the hydrogen atoms of the polymer methyl groups.
There is a way of using a DVR for automatic collision warning of vehicles moving on the oncoming lane. This way is based on the analysis of the images parameters dynamics of vehicles on the road obtained with the help of a video recorder. The analysis determined the value that is compared with a threshold level. Its excess indicates an increased risk of collision of vehicles. At this time, the driver is notified of the need to change the parameters of the vehicle and the restructuring. When using this method, the question remains concerning the adjustment of the algorithm parameters. The aim of the work is to simulate statistically the probability of an accident with timely alarm to the driver about the risk of collision, as well as to study the effect of the alarm parameters on the probability of collision of vehicles moving on the oncoming lane. As a result of modeling, a series of dependencies on the collision probability of different parameters of the alarm algorithm, the car, the driver and the car movement is received. Based on the obtained dependences, it will be possible to conclude about the optimal setting of the parameters of the driver's alarm about the possibility of a collision, taking into account the status and performance of the road system, the car and the driver.
At the present, the actual task is using 3D printers for the manufacture of certain objects with a given level of price / quality ratio. In many cases, it is economically feasible to use a low cost 3D printer. Therefore, it is necessary to have models that predict and classify the printing quality of such printers. The work has involved the development and assembly of a low cost 3D printer. For this purpose, the creation of geometric models of the component parts and the printer itself was carried out, and engineering calculations and optimization of the received designs were performed. It has been developed a printer control system. An experiment was conducted to produce cubes with different printing parameters on such printer. Based on regression analysis, linear and logistic regressions were constructed. Linear regression will allow to assess the quality level of the result depending on the printing parameters, and the logistic regression will allow to classify and predict the probability of manufacturing objects with a given quality level. The influence of each of the print parameters on the quality and result of the classification was analyzed.
The development of wireless communication technologies attracts increased interest to scenarios that impose severe restrictions on data transmission reliability and latency. Such scenarios include real-time applications, such as industrial automation, remote control, video streaming, and virtual reality. It is very difficult to satisfy the requirements imposed on the quality of service with the currently widespread communication technologies. Specifically, it is currently impossible to guarantee a low delay in Wi-Fi networks due to some peculiarities of the applied channel access methods. In this work, we study an approach that provides a low latency and high reliability of communications in Wi-Fi networks on the basis of an additional radio air interface. This approach is studied using the mathematical model of a heterogeneous network, which consists of devices that generate prioritized and non-prioritized data packets. The results of studies show that this approach provides the ability to satisfy the requirements of real-time applications, when certain restrictions on the intensity of prioritized traffic are met. In this case, a decrease in the throughput for non-prioritized traffic is insignificant.
LoRaWAN infrastructure has become widely deployed to provide wireless communications for various sensor applications. These applications generate different traffic volumes and require different quality of service (QoS). The paper presents an accurate mathematical model of low-power data transmission in a LoRaWAN sensor network, which allows accurate validation of key QoS indices, such as network capacity and packet loss ratio. Since LoRaWAN networks operate in the unlicensed spectrum, the model takes into account transmission attempt failures caused by random noise in the channel. Given QoS requirements, we can use the model to study how the performance of a LoRaWAN network depends on the traffic load and other scenario parameters. Since in LoRaWAN networks the transmissions at different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) typically do not collide, we use the model to assign MCSs to the devices to satisfy their QoS requirements.
Being of high importance, real-time applications, such as online gaming, real-time video streaming, virtual reality, and remote-control drone and robots, introduce many challenges to the developers of wireless networks. Such applications pose strict requirements on the delay and packet loss ratio, and it is hardly possible to satisfy them in Wi-Fi networks that use random channel access. The article presents a novel approach to enable real-time communications by exploiting an additional radio. This approach was recently proposed by us in the IEEE 802.11 Working Group and attracted much attention. To evaluate its gain and to study how real-time traffic coexists with the usual one, a mathematical model is designed. The numerical results show that the proposed approach allows decreasing the losses and delays for the real-time traffic by orders of magnitude, while the throughput for the usual traffic is reduced insignificantly in comparison to existing networks.
IEEE 802.11ah, a new amendment to the Wi-Fi standard, adapts Wi-Fi networks to the emerging Internet of Things (IoT). A key component of .11ah is the Restricted Access Window (RAW), a new channel access mechanism, which reduces contention when even thousands of IoT devices operate in the same area by assigning them different channel times. This paper shows that existing studies incorrectly understand the RAW behavior, oversimplify its modeling and thereby overestimate the real system throughput in several times, especially for short durations of the reserved RAW slots. The core contribution of this paper is a new mathematical model based on a completely different approach, which yields more accurate results and thereby enables better IoT system dimensioning. The developed model is suitable for many scenarios typical for IoT. It allows finding RAW parameters that optimize system performance in terms of throughput, power consumption, and packet loss ratio. The proposed solution is can be used for various traffic patterns: when each device transmits a single packet, a batch of packets of random size, or it has full-buffer traffic.
The kinetics of growth of a nanosized germanium film deposited by magnetron sputtering on the Si(001) surface is studied using a developed experimental X-ray reflectometry technique distinguished by the joint recording of specularly reflected and diffusely scattered radiation. By using this technique, it is possible to perform in situ both the analysis of the morphology of the growing film and the control of its thickness with an accuracy to 1 nm. Dependences of the intensity of specular reflection, diffuse scattering, rate of growth, and mean square roughness and density of the film on the deposition time are obtained. According to the results of the measurement of specularly reflected radiation, the film roughness increases with time according to a power law. However, at a thickness of the film of 4 nm, a clearly defined maximum of diffuse scattering is observed, the angular position of which corresponds to the critical angle of total external reflection of germanium of 0.31°. This pattern of distribution of scattered radiation is explained by the manifestation of the Yoneda effect that consists in the anomalous X-ray scattering, the maximum of which corresponds to the critical angle θC of total external reflection from the film. It is established experimentally that, at the initial stage of growth, the film is formed by the Volmer–Weber mechanism. It is found using in situ X-ray reflectometry that the formation of a continuous layer of a germanium film occurs at its thickness of 7 nm; the subsequent growth of the film proceeds according to the power law σf ~ tβ, where β = 0.23.