Engineering and Technology
This book presents the main findings of a study on school learning environments and student outcomes, which the World Bank conducted in 2019 in three regions of the Russian Federation. Using data collected through the OECD School User Survey and the pilot “Trends in Mathematics and Science Study” (TIMSS), the book analyzes how a school’s infrastructure and learning environment may affect the progress and success of students in math and science. It also delves into teaching practices, analyzing their impact on learning and highlighting the important nexus between learning environments and teaching methods. The book concludes by recommending areas in which focused attention by educational authorities could improve educational policy and help maintain high-quality learning environments. The book will be useful for educators, school principals, architects, and policy makers who are involved in school infrastructure projects and are interested in increasing their knowledge of school design planning.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
A GUIDE TO THE FUNDAMENTAL THEORY AND PRACTICE OF OPTICAL COMMUNICATION Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication offers a much needed guide to characterizing and overcoming the drawbacks associated with optical communication links that suffer from various types of fading when optical signals with information traverse these wireless (atmospheric) or wired (fiber optic) channels. The authors--noted experts on the topic--present material that aids in predicting the capacity, data rate, spectral efficiency, and bit-error-rate associated with a channel that experiences fading. They review modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems. The book also discusses how to model the channels, including treating distortion due to the various fading phenomena. Light waves and their similarity to radio waves are explored, and the way light propagates through the atmosphere, through materials, and through the boundary between two materials is explained. This important book: Characterizes principal optical sources and detectors, including descriptions of their advantages and disadvantages, to show how to design systems from start to finish Provides a new method of predicting and dealing with the dispersive properties of fiber optic cables and other optical guiding structures in order to increase data stream capacity Highlights effects of material and multimode (multi-ray) dispersion during propagation of optical signals with data through fiber optic channels Presents modulation techniques and methods of coding and decoding that are useful when implementing communications systems Written for professionals dealing with optical and electro-optical communications, Fiber Optic and Atmospheric Optical Communication explores the theory and practice of optical communication both when the optical signal is propagating through the atmosphere and when it is propagating through an optical fiber.
Cancer cells require exogenous methionine for survival and therefore methionine restriction is a promising avenue for treatment. The basis for methionine dependence in cancer cells is still not entirely clear. While the lack of the methionine salvage enzyme methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) is associated with methionine auxotrophy in cancer cells, there are other causes for tumors to require exogenous methionine. Restricting methionine by diet or by enzyme depletion, alone or in combination with certain chemotherapeutics, is a promising antitumor strategy.
The paper provides findings of the research work and scientific discussions under the “Global Sustainability Strategy Forum” (GSSF) that aims to develop evidence-informed judgments on challenges and solutions. It views attaining sustainability as a set of closely-coupled societal and environmental challenges and opportunities that require integration of multiple disciplines, new research methods, and new knowledge sources with sensitivity to regional and cultural diversities. The project is designed to produce innovative insights and strategies to support effective governance of transitions to sustainability of our complex global social-ecological system within its inherent resource limitations, and to develop sustainable lifestyles that are practical and appealing in the different regions and cultures of the world.
The global climate change is one of the most dangerous threats to human society in the 21st Century. The dramatic losses have already been observed, and the risks are rising over time. CEECCA region experiences many negative impacts of global warming, which is faster and stronger than the world average. Numerous adaptation and resilience measures are required to protect people, but regional governments often underestimate and ignore the social implications of climate policies.This paper explores what are the priority challenges for CEECCA countries and how to address them effectively.
The IEEE Russia North West Section and the European Centre for Quality (Moscow) are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT&QM&IS). The Conference was held in Sochy, Russia on September 23–2, 2019. The Organizing Committee believes and trusts that we have been true to the spirit of collegiality that members of IEEE value whilst also maintaining a high standard as we reviewed papers, provided feedback and now present a strong body of published work in this collection of proceedings. The themes for this year's conference were chosen as a means of bringing together academics and industrialists, engineering and management research, manufacturing and teaching, and providing a basis for discussion of issues arising across the engineering and business community in relation to Quality Management, Information Technologies, Transport and Information Security aimed at developing engineers and managers for the future. The goal of these proceedings has been to present high quality work in an accessible medium, for use in a wide community of academics, engineers, managers, and industrialists, the community united by the key words Science, Education, Quality, Innovations in engineering. To achieve this aim, all abstracts were blind reviewed, and full papers submitted for publication in this journal of proceedings were subjected to a rigorous reviewing process.
The goal of this International Roadmap for Devices and Systems (IRDS) chapter is to survey, catalog, and assess the status of technologies in the areas of cryogenic electronics and quantum information processing. Application drivers are identified for sufficiently developed technologies and application needs are mapped as a function of time against projected capabilities to identify challenges requiring research and development effort. Cryogenic electronics (also referred to as low-temperature electronics or cold electronics) is defined by operation at cryogenic temperatures (below −150 °C or 123.15 K) and includes devices and circuits made from a variety of materials including insulators, conductors, semiconductors, superconductors, or topological materials. Existing and emerging applications are driving development of novel cryogenic electronic technologies. Information processing refers to the input, transmission, storage, manipulation or processing, and output of data. Information processing systems to accomplish a specific function, in general, require several different interactive layers of technology. A top-down list of these layers begins with the required application or system function, leading to system architecture, micro- or nano-architecture, circuits, devices, and materials. A fundamental unit of information (e.g., a bit) is represented by a computational state variable, for example, the position of a bead in the ancient abacus calculator or the voltage (or charge) state of a node capacitance in CMOS logic. A binary computational state variable serves as the foundation for von Neumann computational system architectures that dominated conventional computing. Quantum information processing is different in that it uses qubits, two-state quantum-mechanical systems that can be in coherent superpositions of both states at the same time, which can have computational advantages. Measurement of a qubit in a given basis causes it to collapse to one of the basis states. Technology categories covered in this report include: • Superconductor electronics (SCE) • Cryogenic semiconductor electronics (Cryo-Semi) • Quantum information processing (QIP)
Continuing miniaturization of electronic devices, together with the quickly growing number of nanotechnological applications, demands a profound understanding of the underlying physics. Most of the fundamental problems of modern condensed matter physics involve various aspects of quantum transport and fluctuation phenomena at the nanoscale. In nanostructures, electrons are usually confined to a limited volume and interact with each other and lattice ions, simultaneously suffering multiple scattering events on impurities, barriers, surface imperfections, and other defects. Electron interaction with other degrees of freedom generally yields two major consequences, quantum dissipation and quantum decoherence. In other words, electrons can lose their energy and ability for quantum interference even at very low temperatures. These two different, but related, processes are at the heart of all quantum phenomena discussed in this book.This book presents copious details to facilitate the understanding of the basic physics behind a result and the learning to technically reproduce the result without delving into extra literature. The book subtly balances the description of theoretical methods and techniques and the display of the rich landscape of the physical phenomena that can be accessed by these methods. It is useful for a broad readership ranging from master's and PhD students to postdocs and senior researchers.
The international scientific and engineering conference “Systems of Signal Synchronization, Generating and Processing in Telecommunications” has been held since 1974. For 46 years of work the conference has become a widely known forum for specialists of the field.
The papers which are discussed at the conference can be divided into the following chapters:
– Synchronization Systems and Devices;
– Signal Generating and Shaping Devices;
– Signal Processing Devices.
– Special chapter: “Problems of microwave electronics” them. V.A. Solntsev
The chapters content is concerned with fundamental problems of signal synchronization, generating and processing in the field of communications, broadcasting, radar, radio guidance and radio control. The questions of the practical issues are also including.
The presentations are made by the scientists and developers from 10 countries: Belarus, Azerbaijan, Germany, Kazakhstan, China, Lebanon, Mongolia, Russia, Uzbekistan and Ukraine.
Branch Director of the IEEE Worldwide Limited in the Russian Federation and Scientific Secretary of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Roman Y. Ivanyushkin promotes this conference among the Engineers in the field of Telecommunications. He also organizes the work of conference Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of Russian (Moscow) IEEE Circuits and Systems (CAS04) Chapter Valentin Kuleshov is the Chairman of the Technical Program Committee.
Every year Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society are participate as co-Chairs of the Chapter “Signals Generating and Shaping Devices”.
Chairman of the Steering Committee Alexander Pestryakov (Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Radio and Broadcasting Faculty Dean of the Moscow Technical University of Communications and Informatics) in cooperation with Director and Chairman of Russian Branch IEEE Circuits and System Society appoints the conference committee chairs and other key members.
Conference will produce a publication.
in the present paper author explains the results of using Smart TV as a tool for Industry 4.0, in particular for media industry, also measuring of Quality-of-Service and new business development. A Smart TV is a single connected device or intelligent sensor which increases industry performance through the number of services by using the existing network infrastructure. Thanks to special tracking and analyzing information on board Smart TVs help to improve the service for VoD service provider and product quality for Vendor. Results of applying several methods for problem solving will be reviewed at present material
Proceedings. - Prague, April 23–24, 2019. IEEE Catalog Number: CFP19P59-CDR. ISBN: 978-1-5386-6524-4.
Copyright and Reprint Permission: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. Libraries are permitted to photocopy beyond the limit of U.S. copyright law for private use of patrons those articles in this volume that carry a code at the bottom of the first page, provided the per-copy fee indicated in the code is paid through Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For reprint or republication permission, email to IEEE Copyrights Manager at email@example.com. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2019 by IEEE.
The materials of The International Scientific – Practical Conference is presented below. The Conference reflects the modern state of innovation in education, science, industry and social-economic sphere, from the standpoint of introducing new information technologies. It is interesting for a wide range of researchers, teachers, graduate students and professionals in the field of innovation and information technologies.
2019 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). Proceedings
The 29th DAAAM International Symposium on Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation took place in Zadar, Croatia between the 24th and 27th October 2018, during the DAAAM International Week. The Symposium was organized by DAAAM International Vienna in cooperation with ÖIAV 1848, Vienna University of Technology, International Academy of Engineering and University of Applied Sciences – Technikum Wien and Under the Auspices of the Danube Rectors’ Conference & Rectors’ and Presidents’ Honor Committee of DAAAM International for 2018. The Symposium took place in Zadar, Croatia. This year’s symposium aimed at continuing the success of the previous years, focusing on the five-fold traditional objectives of the symposium: the presentation of the most recent high-quality results, support of development of young scientists and researchers, organization of international (summer) doctoral school, inauguration of new members of Central European Branch of International Academy of Engineering and the provision of the necessary setting for stimulating discussions, brainstorming and networking among European and international researchers coming both from the academia government agencies and industry.
The IEEE Russia North West Section, Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”, and the European Centre for Quality (Moscow) are pleased to present the Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT&QM&IS). The Conference was held in St. Petersburg, Russia on September 24–29, 2018, and it was proudly hosted by Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI”. The Organizing Committee believes and trusts that we have been true to the spirit of collegiality that members of IEEE value whilst also maintaining a high standard as we reviewed papers, provided feedback and now present a strong body of published work in this collection of proceedings. The themes for this year's conference were chosen as a means of bringing together academics and industrialists, engineering and management research, manufacturing and teaching, and providing a basis for discussion of issues arising across the engineering and business community in relation to Quality Management, Information Technologies, Transport and Information Security aimed at developing engineers and managers for the future. The goal of these proceedings has been to present high quality work in an accessible medium, for use in a wide community of academics, engineers, managers, and industrialists, the community united by the key words Science, Education, Quality, Innovations in engineering. To achieve this aim, all abstracts were blind reviewed, and full papers submitted for publication in this journal of proceedings were subjected to a rigorous reviewing process.
This volume offers profound analyses of the main theoretical and practical aspects of the concept of sustainable development: namely, current environmental problems; the building of green economies; climate policies; specifics of international cooperation in the sphere of sustainable development; specific features of business and government involvement in implementing sustainable development; the role of civil society; its social and gender aspects; and specific characteristics of national models of sustainable development. The focus on the international aspects of the implementation of sustainable development ideas makes the insights offered here fresh and unique.
The article presents the possibility of obtaining polymer composite materials based on thermoplastic polyimide and tungsten oxide (WO3) modified with a hydrophobic silicone fluid. Data on surface microscopy, Vickers microhardness, density, and thermal stability of composites with different tungsten oxide contents are presented. As a result of modifying tungsten oxide, its surface becomes hydrophobic, and the contact angle increases from 31° to 101°. The microstructure of the surface of composites has a fine-grained structure without microcracks and chips. The lowest density material has no filler. With increasing filler content, the density increases. When the content of the filler is 80 wt %, the density is 4.35 g/cm3. The optimum content of tungsten oxide filler is 60 wt % as measured by the surface microhardness. The work shows that the introduction of the proposed filler significantly increases the heat resistance of polyimide. Pure polyimide is stable up to 425°С, and at a temperature of 680°С, its full thermal decomposition takes place. With increasing content of modified tungsten oxide in the composite, the rate of mass loss decreases. In the composite containing 60 wt % filler at 680°C, the mass loss is 38%.
Hybrid membranes were prepared by incorporating silica with propyl-imidazoline groups in polybenzimidazoles (phthalide-containing PBI or PBI based on 2,6- or 2,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acids). The influence effects of the silica precursor hydrolysis conditions on the conductivity of the hybrid membranes are studied. Ionic conductivity, water uptake, phosphoric acid doping, and gas permeability of the obtained materials were found to depend on the preparation method and the silica loading. The materials with 10 wt% of functionalized silica present the highest conductivity. A decrease of hydrogen permeability is observed for low silica loadings.
The structure–phase changes that are caused in the surface layers of ferritic–martensitic Eurofer 97 and 10Cr9WV steel samples by the action of pulsed powerful fluxes of deuterium plasma and deuterium ions, which are generated in a plasma focus (PF) setup, are studied. Before tests, the steels were subjected to standard heat treatment (normalizing, tempering), and the 10Cr9WV steel samples were additionally annealed at 600°C for 600 h to determine the stability of the structure and properties at the temperatures that are close to the operating temperatures. During irradiation, the power densities of plasma (qpl = 107–1010 W/cm2) and ion (qi = 109–1012 W/cm2) fluxes and the number of plasma beam pulses (5–12 at a pulse duration of ~100 ns) are varied. The irradiation of the Eurofer 97 steel at qpl = 108–1010 W/cm2 in the PF setup is shown to cause melting and ultrafast solidification of the surface layer with the subsequent formation of a fine cellular structure with a cell size of 100–150 nm in it. The surface film formed on the 10Cr9WV steel samples during preliminary long-term annealing is found to begin to fail at qpl = 108 W/cm2; this film is fully removed at qpl = 1010 W/cm2. This process is accompanied by the segregation of particles 1–3 μm in size, which are enriched in manganese, chromium, and oxygen. After the surface film is removed, irradiation promotes the removal of manganese from the surface layers, and manganese is also removed from the Eurofer 97 steel, which has no surface film in the initial state. The plasma beam treatment of the Eurofer 97 steel in the PF working chamber at qpl = 108 W/cm2 is found to cause the formation of retained austenite in its structure, and the content of retained austenite in the 10Cr9WV steel subjected to similar treatment is lower than in the Eurofer 97 steel by a factor of 20 because of the presence of a film on its surface. The irradiation of the 10Cr9WV steel at a higher power density (qpl = 1010 W/cm2), when the surface film is removed, equalizes the contents of retained austenite in the steels under study.
. This paper presents a novel rodent avoidance test. We have devel-oped a specialized device and procedures that expand the possibilities for exploration of the processes of learning and memory in a psychophysiological experiment. The device consists of a current stimulating electrode-platform and custom software that allows to control and record real-time experimental pro-tocols as well as reconstructs animal movement paths. The device can be used to carry out typical footshock-avoidance tests, such as passive, active, modified active and pedal-press avoidance tasks. It can also be utilized in the studies of prosocial behavior, including cooperation, competition, emotional contagion and empathy. This novel footshock-avoidance test procedure allows flexible current-stimulating settings. In our work, we have used slow-rising current. A test animal can choose between the current rise and time-out intervals as a signal for action in footshock avoidable tasks. This represents a choice between escape and avoid-ance. This method can be used to explore individual differences in decision-making and choice of avoidance strategies. It has been shown previously that a behavioral act, for example, pedal-pressing is ensured by motivation-dependent brain activity (avoidance or approach). We have created an experimental design based on tasks of instrumental learning: pedal-pressing in an operant box results in a reward, which is either a piece of food in a feeder (food-acquisition behavior) or an escape-platform (footshock-avoidance behavior). Data recording and analysis were performed using custom software, the open source Accord.NET Framework was used for real-time object detection and tracking.
We show that the terahertz (THz) photoconductivity in the topological phase of Hg1–xCdxTe-based structures exhibits the apparent PT- (parity-time) symmetry whereas the P-symmetry and the T-symmetry, separately, are not conserved. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the P- and T-symmetry breaking may not be related to any type of the sample anisotropy. This result contradicts the apparent symmetry arguments and means that there exists an external factor that interacts with the sample electronic system and breaks the symmetry. We show that deviations from the ideal experimental geometry may not be such a factor.
Nowadays the abundance of IoT devices has the potential of changing our lives dramatically, but brings new routing and traffic orchestration challenges for the next-generation Internet providers: core routers are already overwhelmed, see e.g, the routing table size growth problem. Although some researchers still argue whether or not the next-generation networks should feature scale-free properties, recent results have shown benefits of embedding such scale-free networks in a hyperbolic space of negative curvature. Specifically, this allows geometrically route packets by using only a local topology knowledge (i.e., with average O∗(1) space–time complexity) at no extra communication overhead (i.e., without routing protocols). To our knowledge, however, there is no Traffic Engineering (TE) protocol with the aforementioned properties that can be used in dynamic scale-free networks. In this paper, we propose the first to our knowledge REpulsive-BAsed Traffic Engineering (REBATE) protocol for dynamic scale-free networks. REBATE is built upon dual principles of the demand-aware TE and fundamentals properties of hyperbolic spaces. Using trace-driven numerical simulations, we then show how REBATE can reduce the maximum link utilization up to 25% when compared to a common geometric routing-based traffic steering. Although REBATE can perform worse than common demands-aware and oblivious TE approaches, we think that our work should pave the way for more efficient TE in the next-generation dynamic scale-free networks.
We present the sensor with a sensitive element (SE) based on coupled radial spirals, which can be used for monitoring technological processes in the Electronic Industry, as well as for detecting damages on the pipelines under protective coatings. The main properties and characteristics of such SE are analyzed and measured. It is shown that the concentration of the electromagnetic field in a measuring space, caused by slowing down of the the wave, and splitting of the electric and magnetic fields leads to a significant increase in sensitivity, whereas the multiple increases in the slowdown makes it possible to use the advantages of SE with distributed parameters at relatively low operating frequencies. The practical realization of the described sensor is demonstrated in measuring the ion implantation processes and the thickness of the metallization, as well as in monitoring the invisible cracks and damages through the protective coats on the metal surfaces.
The influence of plastic deformation of low-carbon steel on birefringence of the shear waves birefringence is examined. Acoustic measurements show that the birefringence changes monotonously, while the intensity of the change decreases with increasing strain. Significant reduction of the birefringence is found to indicate that the capability to plastic deformation has been largely used. In order to explain the experimental results, computer simulations of the crystallographic texture of a polycrystalline material, and its change during plastic deformation, have been carried out. It has been found that internal stresses due to the presence of mesodefects, accumulating at grain boundaries, have a significant effect on the crystallographic texture and the birefringence. Thus, this effect allows one condition monitoring of a plastically deformed low-carbon steels under plastic deformation.
Magnetic nanocomposites involving tetraborate ion (TB)-intercalated Mg–Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) shell supported on magnesium ferrite core particles are synthesized, characterized, and compared with their non-magnetic analogues. The compositions of the obtained nanocomposites were determined and structural investigations were made by powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Particle characteristics were examined by size distribution, specific surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Room-temperature magnetic measurements were performed with a vibrating sample magnetometer. The dynamics and structure of the interlayer water molecules and borate ions were studied by molecular dynamics simulations. Analytical and modeling studies verified that the TB ions were arranged between the LDH layers in oblique positions. The products were found to carry ca. 6% boron (10**17 B atom/μg nanocomposite). The magnetic nanocomposite showed superparamagnetic properties and can potentially find applications in biomedical fields for the site-specific delivery of bio-potent boron agents.